Codependency is a phenomenon that became popular in the 1980s when it was coined to describe a relationship between significant others and their alcoholic or drug addicted spouses or family members. Research to define and explain codependency has been sparse in spite of the plethora of self-help books in the commercial sector targeted for persons who seek treatment or relief from the condition through the self-help movement. The secular literature has offered. confusing and all-inclusive definitions of codependency, and has attributed codependency to as much as 95% of the population, while also citing only women as codependent. Ninety-seven chemically dependent addicts and alcoholics in treatment and their family members, along with beginning counselors-in-training completed the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale, the Dellas Identity Status Inventory, and the Children of Alcoholic Screening Test (CAST). Multiple correlation and ANOVA procedures were applied to the data in order to compare codependency with identity achievement, codependency with gender, and subgroup with subgroup on the basis of codependency, identity status, and CAST scores.
No correlation was found between codependency and identity achievement in
the entire sample or in the subgroups. No differences were found between the males and females in the sample on the basis of codependency. The subgroups of addicts, family members, and students were shown to be significantly different from the others on the basis of codependency, F(1,94)=6.92; Q<.01, and on the basis of identity status scores, with each group found to be distinctive from the others in vocational (Q<.001 ), religious (Q<. 01 ), and political (Q<. 001) identity development.
Identity development alone could not be construed to be the explanation for
codependency, thus leaving room for more investigation into the theoretical rationale for codependency. Gender was not correlated with codependency, therefore the mental health community is advised to ascribe codependency to neither men nor women exclusively. It was recommended that addicts and alcoholics, family members of addicts and alcoholics, and counseling students be studied further to learn of the variables which might explain or predict their differences in codependency and identity status.
(University of Alabama Libraries, 1979) Lee, Jeane B.; Cecil, Jean H.; Joslin, Leeman C.
This study examined the variables of socioeconomic
status, racial identity, black-white interaction, and previous
school experience as they relate to black women's choice
of academic institutions, contrasting the characteristics
of those women attending a predominantly black college
with those of women attending a predominantly white state
university. The institutions used in this study were
Tuskegee Institute and The University of Alabama, both of
which are relatively old and traditional and are located
in the deep south.
(University of Alabama Libraries, 2000) McClain, Kathleen P.; McIver, Katherine A.
For centuries art and literature have been utilized
to guide and define the beliefs of society. One of the most
important literary sources designed to instruct and enlighten
is the Bible. The Christian Bible as we know it
today derived from the Hebrew Bible, which was translated
into Greek in the second century. There were a few books,
known as the Apocrypha, which were not in the Hebrew Bible
but were included in the Greek translation. The Apocrypha
consisted of fifteen books of didactic writings, some of
which were in narrative form. It is these narrative stories
that contain lessons of proper conduct in accordance with
the religious beliefs of Hebrew culture. It is the story of
Susanna and the Elders from the Apocryphal Book of Daniel
that comprises the subject of this thesis.
Artistically the story of Susanna and the Elders has
been depicted with specific intentions, for visual pleasure
and didactic instruction. Particularly in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries, this story was utilized to guide and
express societal beliefs of the gender roles of men and
women. The Biblical figure of Susanna contained the morals
and values that every woman was to maintain within her own
life. Images of Susanna were intended as visual reminders
to women of the proper behavior expected of them. Chapter 2
will discuss how Susanna's story and its images reflect the
sixteenth and seventeenth century beliefs of feminine behavior.
The discussion will continue in Chapter 3 by addressing
how certain images of Susanna are within the tradition
of representing the male-desired ideal of a woman.
Although traditionally the art of Susanna's story
has been an educational tool and representation of feminine
beauty, there are some works that go beyond this tradition
to address the art/viewer relationship. Chapter 4 will complete
the examination of Susanna's evolution from the passive
traditional depiction to active interaction.
(Creative Media and Communications Research Ltd. & EUPRERA, 2023) Topic, Martina
This research was conducted as part of the Women in Public Relations project of the
European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA), which aims to
document the realities of women practicing the profession in different countries. Based on an
exploratory and qualitative design, this research aimed to fill a lack of data available about the gender
issues faced by women working in public relations in the province of Québec and to compare these
realities to what has been observed elsewhere in North America, and other national contexts around
the world. Keeping with the framework of the Women in PR project, interviews with 15 Frenchspeaking
women working in PR in Québec were conducted to gain a better understanding of the
gender issues that characterize women’s lived experience of PR work, office and workplace culture,
and perceptions and stereotypes associated with the leadership styles in this field.
(University of Illinois Press, 2023) Decker, Emy Nelson
Responsibility center management (RCM) is a market-based budget model that may benefit certain academic institutions. While there are supporters and opponents of the model, there is a lack of hard evidence about the potential impact of RCM on a variety of institutional variables, hence the need for this study. This study brought together the variables, “fall enrollment,” “graduation rate,” “retention,” and “financial aid,” informed by IPEDS data, to examine quantitatively changes relating to RCM implementation. Data indicates that the implementation of RCM had a positive relationship with these variables. While these outcomes may encourage the implementation of RCM, the individual goals of an institution need to be considered before the decision to use RCM is made.