Exploring the Effects of Piston Bowl Geometry and Injector Included Angle on Dual-Fuel and Single-Fuel RCCI


Reactivity control compression ignition (RCCI) is a low-temperature combustion technique that has been proposed to meet the current demand for high thermal efficiency and low engine-out emissions. However, its requirement of two separate fuel systems (i.e., a low-reactivity fuel system and a high-reactivity fuel system) has been one of its major challenges in the last decade. This leads to the single-fuel RCCI concept, where the secondary fuel (reformates of diesel) is generated from the primary fuel (diesel) through catalytic partial oxidation reformation. Following the in-depth analysis of the reformate fuel (reformates of diesel) and its benefit as the low-reactivity fuel with diesel, the effects of the start of injection (SOI) timing of diesel and the energy-based blend ratio were also studied in detail. In this study, the effects of piston profile and the injector included angles were experimentally examined using both conventional fuel pairs (gasoline-diesel and natural gas-diesel) and reformate RCCI. A validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was also used for a better understanding of the experimental trends. Comparing a reentrant bowl piston with a shallow bowl piston at a constant compression ratio and SOI, the latter showed better thermal efficiency, regardless of the fuel combination, due to its 10% lower surface area for the heat transfer. Comparing the 150-degree included angle and 60-degree included angle on the shallow bowl piston, the latter showed better combustion efficiency, regardless of the fuel combination, due to its earlier combustion phasing (at constant SOI timing). The effect was particularly prominent on reformate RCCI because of its incredibly high diluent concentration, which retards the combustion further for the 150-deg injector. Later, using convergecfd, seven different injector included angles were studied at a constant SOI. With the change in injector included angle, the region of the cylinder targeted by the fuel spray varies significantly, and it was found to have a significant impact on the combustion efficiency and the engine-out emissions. As the injector included angle changed from 60-deg to 150-deg, the combustion efficiency increased by 15% and the CO, NOx, and HC emissions decreased by 96%, 70%, and 86%, respectively.

Hariharan, D., Rahimi Boldaji, M., Yan, Z., Gainey, B., & Lawler, B. (2021). Exploring the effects of piston bowl geometry and injector included angle on dual-fuel and single-fuel RCCI. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 143(11). https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052203