Foundational Numerical Skills in Children with Down Syndrome
The Approximate Number System (ANS) is the cognitive system that makes up the intuitive, non-numerical/non-symbolic representation of all numbers. ANS performance in a number acuity task is believed to be an important predictor of numerical skills. It is important to understand how well ANS functions in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) to better understand the role numerical skills play in this special population. If we can better understand how numerical skills function in DS, then we can develop interventions to help improve these numerical skills in individuals with DS and improve their adaptive skills that are limited by numerical skills, such as counting change and cooking. The current study compared both the group with DS and the TD group matched by receptive vocabulary skills on their non-symbolic and symbolic numerical skills by taking the overall scores for the ANS and the overall scores for symbolic numerical skills across receptive vocabulary scores. Results revealed there were no significant main effects nor interaction found when task x group was compared in a 2x2 repeated measures ANOVA. Additionally, results revealed there was no significant difference between groups for both non-symbolic and symbolic numerical skills when measured across PPVT-5 GSV scores. Implications and limitations of the study findings are discussed.