Technology and preservice teacher education: a mixed-methods study of technology integration by arts and science faculty into secondary education content courses
In spite of initiatives design to address the integration of technology into teaching and the billions of dollars spent to fund these initiatives, there is still a gap in the research on the extent to which teacher education programs prepare preservice teachers to integrate technology into teaching (Kleiner et al, 2007; Abbitt & Klett, 2007). While Schools, Colleges, and Departments of Education are required to address technology integration for accreditation, how and when technology is address is left to the discretion of each institution. Because pre-service secondary education students typically take the majority of their courses outside of the College of Education, teacher preparation programs have a stake in technology use among Arts and Sciences faculty. This mixed-methods study used the Higher Education-Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge (HE-TPACK) survey to examine perceptions of Arts and Sciences faculty who teach content courses for pre-service secondary education majors at a southeastern research university. The HE-TPACK addressed eight domains of technology training (TT), pedagogy knowledge (PK), technology knowledge (TK), content knowledge (CK), pedagogy content knowledge (PCK), technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), technological content Knowledge (TCK), and technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK). Interviews were conducted to create a more in depth picture of technology use in the teaching practices of Arts and Sciences faculty. Looking through a theoretical lens of transformative learning, interview participants were asked about their experiences with technology, opportunities they provide for their students to integrate technology through assignments, and any transformative experiences that caused them to view technology in a different way. Based on the findings of this study, many faculty overestimate their HE-TPACK abilities. While many faculty still view technology as a production or communication skill, there were specific examples of transformative experiences that changed the way certain individuals address technology for student learning. This agrees with previous research that modeling technology integration helps teachers feel more comfortable and better prepared to teach with technology (Whipp, Schewiezer, & Dooley, 2001; Kayne-Chaplock, Whipp, & Schwiezer 2004). Because of their own transformative experiences, these faculty members were able to facilitate a transformative learning experience for their students (Jang & Chen, 2010).