Assessment in physical education
The utilization and practice of assessment in physical education has recently been targeted as the missing ingredient in the teaching-learning process. Although some progress has been made towards the use of alternative assessment, preservice and inservice teachers’ assessment practices are far from being educationally productive. Therefore, guided by occupational socialization theory and the assessment literacy framework, this dissertation explored how preservice and inservice teachers understand and enact beliefs of assessment. In study 1, a research-based conceptual framework is presented for helping preservice teachers develop assessment literacy. Arguments for developing assessment literacy are couched in occupational socialization theory to help overcome barriers to the adoption and use of assessment practices. Further, a four phase model is provided for physical education teacher education programs to integrate assessment progressively across a program toward the goal of promoting assessment literacy.Study 2 investigated the influence of workplace factors and teachers’ conceptions of assessment on the extent to which they report integrating quality assessment into their practice. Survey data from 90 inservice physical education teachers from Alabama were analyzed through Ordinary Least Squares regression. Specifically, teachers’ perceived quality of assessment was regressed on workplace factors (perceived organizational support, marginalization, and class size) and conceptions of assessment. The first regression model (adjusted R2 = .08) did not include any significant predictors, therefore a second was run to examine if workplace factors and conceptions of assessment could be used to predict the belief that assessment improves education. In the second model (adjusted R2 = .66) the following variables were significant: assessment makes schools accountable, assessment makes students accountable, assessment is irrelevant, marginalization, and perceived organizational support. Study 3 investigated how six preservice physical education teachers understood and enacted the message system (assessment, pedagogy, and curriculum) while employing the Sport Education model. The model was taught to elementary students during a seven week early field experience, totaling 540 instructional minutes. Data collection methods comprised of interviews (formal, focus group, and informal), passive participation observation, weekly journals, critical incidents, document collection, and video recordings of Sport Education lessons. Results of the study included three themes: (a) the structure and features of the Sport Education model and informal assessment were driving forces of instructional decisions, (b) the Sport Education model was a driving force of formal assessment, and (c) although valuing assessment, the preservice teachers demonstrated low literacy upon implementation of assessment.