Control surface hinge moment prediction using computational fluid dynamics
The following research determines the feasibility of predicting control surface hinge mo- ments using various computational methods. A detailed analysis is conducted using a 2D GA(W)-1 airfoil with a 20% plain flap. Simple hinge moment prediction methods are tested, including empirical Datcom relations and XFOIL. Steady-state and time-accurate turbulent, viscous, Navier-Stokes solutions are computed using Fun3D. Hinge moment coefficients are computed. Mesh construction techniques are discussed. An adjoint-based mesh adaptation case is also evaluated. An NACA 0012 45-degree swept horizontal stabilizer with a 25% ele- vator is also evaluated using Fun3D. Results are compared with experimental wind-tunnel data obtained from references. Finally, the costs of various solution methods are estimated. Results indicate that while a steady-state Navier-Stokes solution can accurately predict control surface hinge moments for small angles of attack and deflection angles, a time- accurate solution is necessary to accurately predict hinge moments in the presence of flow separation. The ability to capture the unsteady vortex shedding behavior present in mod- erate to large control surface deflections is found to be critical to hinge moment prediction accuracy. Adjoint-based mesh adaptation is shown to give hinge moment predictions similar to a globally-refined mesh for a steady-state 2D simulation.