Hegemonic masculinity and sexual stereotyping in physical education
Previous research has indicated that the preservice teachers (PTs) with coaching orientations reinforced sexism and masculine bias while employing the sport education (SE) model. The first study examined the degree to which SE delivered by two PTs with teaching orientations combatted or reinforced sexism and masculine bias in four SE seasons. Guided by the theory of hegemonic masculinity (HM), findings revealed that sexism and masculine bias were largely combatted and that the PTs provided a relatively equitable experience for girls and smaller, less physically able boys. Key reasons for this success included PTs' liberal views about sport, their willingness to confront the prevailing sporting culture, and the fact that they taught elementary-aged children. With the intention to integrate the two previous studies, the theory of HM was employed in the second study examining four SE seasons taught by two experienced inservice teachers for the presence or absence of sexism and masculine bias. The inservice teachers were found able to combat the effects of HM to a greater extent than teaching-oriented PTs. Their effectiveness was attributed to their liberal beliefs about sport and gender and teaching orientations. Additionally, the teachers were able to provide a relatively equitable experience for girls and smaller, less physically able boys because they possessed good levels of curricular, pedagogical, content, and pedagogical content knowledge as well as superior knowledge of their pupils. The HM perspective also suggests that any contradicting masculinities are discredited by the dominant form. Similar to males who do not behave in accepted masculine ways might be marginalized as being "feminine," homosexual traits might be marginalized relative to those considered heterosexual. Therefore, the third study examined the influence of sexual identity stereotyping (SIS) on five heterosexual female physical education (PE) PTs. Results indicated that the PTs generally had a good understanding of SIS and that four of them had encountered it although only one had been sexually stereotyped herself. Grounded theory, in the form of five hypotheses, was developed to explain the influence of SIS on heterosexual female PE PTs and neophyte female PE teachers.