Levels of biofunctional embodiment of authentic understanding in the classroom: Shakespeare in secondary english classrooms
This study uses a 3x3x3 Latin square design to investigate the idea that understanding may be taught by means of biofunctionally embodied (BE) classroom practice. Three levels of biofunctional embodiment were manipulated as a within-subjects factor. The other two variables were three scenes from Shakespeare and three lessons each taught in the first, second, or third position with scene and lesson serving as between-subjects factors. The nine between-subjects conditions were first randomly assigned to nine different 9th grade classes. Then, each class was taught three lessons in counterbalanced order in order to manipulate levels of embodiment using a three phase educational model. The first phase in this model, teaching, and the third phase, testing, were identical across all lessons. The second phase, biofunctionally embodied rehearsal, was different across the three within-subjects level of biofunctional embodiment in presentation material (audio, traditional film, and modern film) and the student rehearsal (silent, verbal, and enacted) of the Shakespeare scene Dependent measures completed by students during the testing phase include an interest activity, a "modified recall of understanding" (MRU) multiple-choice activity, and an open-ended "remembering your own understanding" (RYOU) task. A series of ANOVA procedures was used to analyze effects of each of the independent variables on student performance. The prediction of interest is that the higher the level of embodiment, the higher the level of understanding and interest.