Reflecting an Image Not Equivalent to the Masses: Minority Presence and Portrayal in Mainstream Magazine Advertising
This research is a content analysis that focuses on the presence, portrayal, and integration of minorities in mainstream magazine advertising. Nine mass-circulation magazines from 1999 constituted the sample frame: four issues of each magazine for a total of 36 issues, yielding 870 half page or larger "populated" advertisements. Each ad was coded for minority presence, role, interaction setting, level of interaction, gender, and product category. The overall presence of minority models has increased since earlier studies. Black models continue to be the largest minority group appearing in integrated advertisements followed by Hispanics, then Asians. The largest product category that used minority models was public service announcements. Blacks were the minority group to have the largest total percentage of "major" roles. The majority of the settings for the advertisements were "informal." The level of face-to-face interaction between Whites and minorities was very limited especially when compared to face-to-face interaction by Whites with other Whites.