Negotiations patterns of preservice and student teachers within physical education
Study One described patterns of teacher-student negotiation when preservice teachers (PTs) taught within the teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model. The research questions examined forms and extent of negotiations. Seven PTs in an elementary early field experience (EFE) taught three to four mini-units of various fundamental movement skills. In two units, negotiations became more positive; in three, they remained constant; and in two, they become more negative. Key factors influencing patterns of negotiation were PTs’ comprehension of and comfort with the TPSR model; class size; and students’ age, gender, and skill level. The second study described patterns of negotiation engaged in by 16 PCTs and their students during a physical education early field experience (EFE) within six lessons of various content to second and fourth grade students. Seven PCTs were relatively effective negotiators, while nine were relatively ineffective. Negotiation skills were influenced by PCTs’ comfort with physical education, pedagogical knowledge, content knowledge, and pedagogical content knowledge. Negotiations initiated were similar to those described in previous studies. The type and amount of student-initiated negotiation was influenced by their gender, age, and skill level, and content taught. The third study produced a quantified longitudinal negotiation profile for one preservice teacher (PT; George) teaching three sport education (SE) seasons. Research questions examined forms and extent of negotiations and differences between grade levels. The 47 lessons in George’s sixth, seventh, and eighth grade SE season on handball were filmed and coded with an event recording systematic observation instrument designed to classify and categorize negotiations as they occur. Results revealed that negotiations initiated by George and his students were relatively infrequent, with few differences between the SE seasons. The types and foci of the negotiations were similar to those described in previous qualitative studies as were the tactics used to initiate the negotiations. The pattern of the negotiations in this study were also similar to those in previous qualitative research focused on SE.