Shear transport far from equilibrium via holography
In heavy-ion collisions, the quark-gluon plasma is produced far from equilibrium. This regime is currently inaccessible by direct quantum chromodynamics (QCD) computations. In a holographic context, we propose a general method to characterize transport properties based on well-defined two-point functions. We calculate shear transport and entropy far from equilibrium, defining a time-dependent ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, (\eta /s). Large deviations from its near-equilibrium value (1/4\pi ), up to a factor of 2.5, are found for realistic situations at the Large Hadron Collider. We predict the far-from-equilibrium time-dependence of (\eta /s) to substantially affect the evolution of the QCD plasma and to impact the extraction of QCD properties from flow coefficients in heavy-ion collision data.