An in-depth analysis of head-on crash severity and fatalities in Ghana


Head-on collisions are often linked to more serious injuries compared to other types of crashes, due to the intense impact they cause. In low-and middle-income countries, these collisions frequently involve high occupancy public transportation vehicles, leading to higher fatality rates per crash. Given the high risk of injury and potential for multiple casualties, this study delves into the factors influencing the outcomes of head-on crashes and the number of fatalities in Ghana. The study analyzed six years of historical head-on collision data from Ghana and developed two models to address the issue. The injury-severity analysis was performed using a random param-eter multinomial logit with heterogeneity in means and variances approach and aimed to identify the factors that have a significant impact on the severity of injuries sustained in head-on colli-sions, while the random parameters negative binomial fatality count model was designed to examine the factors that contribute to the number of fatalities in these crashes in the country. Results showed that head-on collisions with drivers over 65, buses, motorcycles, and those be-tween 25 and 65 years of age were more likely to result in fatalities. Speeding and vehicle malfunctions were also found to be significant contributing factors to fatal head-on collisions. Head-on crashes involving minibuses and incidents where the driver was attempting to overtake another vehicle were found to be more likely to result in a higher number of fatalities. The results of this study uncover an intriguing interaction between human-related elements and socioeco-nomic factors, which pose obstacles to the Government's endeavor to upgrade the major high-ways in the country. Additionally, the increasing need for transportation has led to the presence of vehicles on the roads that may not meet safety standards. Consequently, it is no surprise that several of the study's findings align with expectations. Nevertheless, within the specific context of Ghana, these findings furnish compelling data-driven evidence supporting the adoption and implementation of the safe systems approach as a means to tackle fatal head-on collisions in the country.

Head-on crash, Low-and-middle income country, Road safety, Safe systems approach, 2-LANE RURAL HIGHWAYS, INJURY SEVERITY, STATISTICAL-ANALYSIS, LOGIT MODEL, DRIVERS, HETEROGENEITY, COLLISIONS, FAULT, Multidisciplinary Sciences
Adanu, E. K., Agyemang, W., Lidbe, A., Adarkwa, O., & Jones, S. (2023). An in-depth analysis of head-on crash severity and fatalities in Ghana. In Heliyon (Vol. 9, Issue 8, p. e18937). Elsevier BV.