The Changing Nonlinear Relationship between Income and Terrorism

dc.contributor.authorEnders, Walter
dc.contributor.authorHoover, Gary A.
dc.contributor.authorSandler, Todd
dc.contributor.otherUniversity of Alabama Tuscaloosa
dc.contributor.otherUniversity of Texas Dallas
dc.date.accessioned2023-09-28T20:39:36Z
dc.date.available2023-09-28T20:39:36Z
dc.date.issued2016
dc.description.abstractThis article reinvestigates the relationship between real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and terrorism. We devise a terrorism Lorenz curve to show that domestic and transnational terrorist attacks are each more concentrated in middle-income countries, thereby suggesting a nonlinear income-terrorism relationship. Moreover, this point of concentration shifted to lower income countries after the rising influence of the religious fundamentalist and nationalist/separatist terrorists in the early 1990s. For transnational terrorist attacks, this shift characterized not only the attack venue but also the perpetrators' nationality. The article then uses nonlinear smooth transition regressions to establish the relationship between real per capita GDP and terrorism for eight alternative terrorism samples, accounting for venue, perpetrators' nationality, terrorism type, and the period. Our nonlinear estimates are shown to be favored over estimates using linear or quadratic income determinants of terrorism. These nonlinear estimates are robust to additional controls.en_US
dc.format.mediumelectronic
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.identifier.citationEnders, W., Hoover, G. A., & Sandler, T. (2014). The Changing Nonlinear Relationship between Income and Terrorism. In Journal of Conflict Resolution (Vol. 60, Issue 2, pp. 195–225). SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002714535252
dc.identifier.doi10.1177/0022002714535252
dc.identifier.urihttps://ir.ua.edu/handle/123456789/11731
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherSage
dc.rights.licenseAttribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
dc.subjectterrorism and poverty
dc.subjectsmooth transition regressions
dc.subjectdomestic and transnational terrorism
dc.subjectLorenz curves
dc.subjectTRANSNATIONAL TERRORISM
dc.subjectPOVERTY
dc.subjectDETERMINANTS
dc.subjectInternational Relations
dc.subjectPolitical Science
dc.titleThe Changing Nonlinear Relationship between Income and Terrorismen_US
dc.typeArticle
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