Game day emergency: a flow and vector based GIS stadium evacuation model
The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has deemed anti-terrorism evacuation planning and simulation critically important for sport stadium security. In this study, a flow based geographic information system (GIS) vector evacuation model was built in ArcMap. The model was developed to compute a total evacuation time estimate (ETE) for The University of Alabama's football stadium in the event of a human-made hazard, among other purposes. Though a GIS based stadium evacuation model has already been published, this study sought to improve the limitations of that model, as well as to provide emergency management planners (EMPs) with additional tools to help them prepare for a variety of human-made hazards. The model was successful in those aims. The model yielded an ETE of 23.54 minutes and gave planners the use of the functions in ArcMap's Network Analyst extension, including seat-by-seat evacuation routes, service areas, and closest exit locations.