Spider Phylogenomics: Untangling the Spider Tree of Life

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dc.contributor.author Garrison, Nicole L.
dc.contributor.author Rodriguez, Juanita
dc.contributor.author Agnarsson, Ingi
dc.contributor.author Coddington, Jonathan A.
dc.contributor.author Griswold, Charles E.
dc.contributor.author Hamilton, Christopher A.
dc.contributor.author Hedin, Marshal
dc.contributor.author Kocot, Kevin M.
dc.contributor.author Ledford, Joel M.
dc.contributor.author Bond, Jason E.
dc.date.accessioned 2021-08-25T21:22:38Z
dc.date.available 2021-08-25T21:22:38Z
dc.date.issued 2016
dc.identifier.citation Garrison, N., et al. (2016): Spider Phylogenomics: Untangling the Spider Tree of Life. PeerJ: Life & Environment. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://ir.ua.edu/handle/123456789/8074
dc.description.abstract Spiders (Order Araneae) are massively abundant generalist arthropod predators that are found in nearly every ecosystem on the planet and have persisted for over 380 million years. Spiders have long served as evolutionary models for studying complex mating and web spinning behaviors, key innovation and adaptive radiation hypotheses, and have been inspiration for important theories like sexual selection by female choice. Unfortunately, past major attempts to reconstruct spider phylogeny typically employing the ‘‘usual suspect’’ genes have been unable to produce a well-supported phylogenetic framework for the entire order. To further resolve spider evolutionary relationships we have assembled a transcriptome-based data set comprising 70 ingroup spider taxa. Using maximum likelihood and shortcut coalescence-based approaches, we analyze eight data sets, the largest of which contains 3,398 gene regions and 696,652 amino acid sites forming the largest phylogenomic analysis of spider relationships produced to date. Contrary to long held beliefs that the orb web is the crowning achievement of spider evolution, ancestral state reconstructions of web type support a phylogenetically ancient origin of the orb web, and diversification analyses show that the mostly ground-dwelling, web-less RTA clade diversified faster than orb weavers. Consistent with molecular dating estimates we report herein, this may reflect a major increase in biomass of non-flying insects during the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution 125–90 million years ago favoring diversification of spiders that feed on cursorial rather than flying prey. Our results also have major implications for our understanding of spider systematics. Phylogenomic analyses corroborate several well-accepted high level groupings: Opisthothele, Mygalomorphae, Atypoidina, Avicularoidea, Theraphosoidina, Araneomorphae, Entelegynae, Araneoidea, the RTA clade, Dionycha and the Lycosoidea. Alternatively, our results challenge the monophyly of Eresoidea, Orbiculariae, and Deinopoidea. The composition of the major paleocribellate and neocribellate clades, the basal divisions of Araneomorphae, appear to be falsified. Traditional Haplogynae is in need of revision, as our findings appear to support the newly conceived concept of Synspermiata. The sister pairing of filistatids with hypochilids implies that some How to cite this article Garrison et al. (2016), Spider phylogenomics: untangling the Spider Tree of Life. PeerJ 4:e1719; DOI 10.7717/peerj.1719 peculiar features of each family may in fact be synapomorphic for the pair. Leptonetids now are seen as a possible sister group to the Entelegynae, illustrating possible intermediates in the evolution of the more complex entelegyne genitalic condition, spinning organs and respiratory organs. en_US
dc.description.uri https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1719
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language English en_US
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subject Evolutionary Studies en_US
dc.subject Taxonomy en_US
dc.subject Zoology en_US
dc.subject Arachnida en_US
dc.subject Molecular systematics en_US
dc.subject Araneae en_US
dc.subject Spider phylogeny en_US
dc.subject Web evolution en_US
dc.title Spider Phylogenomics: Untangling the Spider Tree of Life en_US
dc.type text

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