Restraint influence on state anxiety and personality assessment inventory responding

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dc.contributor Cox, Jennifer
dc.contributor Gardner, Brett
dc.contributor.advisor Kois, Lauren
dc.contributor.author Peck, Ashley
dc.date.accessioned 2021-07-07T14:36:44Z
dc.date.available 2021-07-07T14:36:44Z
dc.date.issued 2020-12
dc.identifier.other u0015_0000001_0003774
dc.identifier.other Peck_alatus_0004M_14403
dc.identifier.uri http://ir.ua.edu/handle/123456789/7853
dc.description Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
dc.description.abstract Standardized test administration is key to a test’s validity, but often thwarted in correctional environments when policy or staff require that examinees wear restraints. Restraints such as handcuffs may impact participants’ state anxiety, stress, frustration, and irritability, as well as the profile validity of their responses. Participants in this study were randomized to cuffed, partial-cuffed, or uncuffed conditions. They completed a state anxiety measure, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and a multiscale (trait) inventory, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Due to sample size limitations, experimental conditions (cuffed and partial-cuffed) were combined into the restrained condition for analyses and compared to their uncuffed (unrestrained) counterparts. The author hypothesized that individuals who were restrained at any point in the study would report higher state anxiety (PANAS NA) and have elevated PAI scales related to anxiety (ANX), frustration (STR), and irritability (MAN-I) when compared to individuals who were unrestrained. In addition, it was hypothesized that those who were restrained at any point during the study would have elevated PAI validity scales (ICN, INF, and NIM) when compared to their unrestrained counterparts. Notably, the power of the study was limited by sample size; post-hoc power analyses rendered .06 to .26 power across comparisons, which indicated a low likelihood of identifying significant effects. Independent samples t-tests found no significant differences between the restrained and unrestrained conditions on the aforementioned comparisons, and small Cohen’s d values for four of the six comparisons. While the study’s findings do not strongly inform practice recommendations, they bring attention to the frequent issue of unstandardized test administration in forensic contexts.
dc.format.extent 52 p.
dc.format.medium electronic
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language English
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher University of Alabama Libraries
dc.relation.ispartof The University of Alabama Electronic Theses and Dissertations
dc.relation.ispartof The University of Alabama Libraries Digital Collections
dc.relation.hasversion born digital
dc.rights All rights reserved by the author unless otherwise indicated.
dc.subject.other Clinical psychology
dc.title Restraint influence on state anxiety and personality assessment inventory responding
dc.type thesis
dc.type text
etdms.degree.department University of Alabama. Department of Psychology
etdms.degree.discipline Psychology
etdms.degree.grantor The University of Alabama
etdms.degree.level master's
etdms.degree.name M.A.


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