Smiling behaviors and credibility in actual trials: a naturalistic observation of witnesses

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dc.contributor Guadagno, Rosanna E.
dc.contributor Oths, Kathryn S.
dc.contributor.advisor Brodsky, Stanley L. Nagle, Jacklyn Edith 2017-03-01T16:26:49Z 2017-03-01T16:26:49Z 2012
dc.identifier.other u0015_0000001_0000928
dc.identifier.other Nagle_alatus_0004M_11072
dc.description Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
dc.description.abstract Nonverbal behaviors, like smiling, occur during witness testimony in trials. Although it has been acknowledged that witnesses exhibit smiling behaviors, there has been no research examining the subsequent effect of smiling on witness credibility. This study used naturalistic observation to examine smiling behaviors and credibility in actual witnesses testifying in court. Results are examined through quantitative analyses and qualitative descriptions. Raters assessed the smiling behaviors and credibility of 32 male and female witnesses testifying in trials of the Tuscaloosa County Courthouse. "Credibility raters" rated the perceived likeability, trustworthiness, confidence, knowledge, and overall credibility of the witnesses using the Witness Credibility Scale (WCS; Brodsky et al., 2010). "Smile raters" noted smiling frequency and types, including Duchenne (genuine smiles), non-Duchenne (false smiles), speaking/expressive, and listening/receptive smiles. No significant differences were found in the smiling frequency or types for male and female witnesses. All types of smiles besides non-Duchenne were found to contribute to perceived likeability of a witness. Gender was found to affect perceived trustworthiness ratings, in which male witnesses were seen as more trustworthy than female witnesses. Exploratory analyses found significant differences for race, in that African-American witnesses were perceived as less trustworthy, less knowledgeable, and less credible overall than Caucasian witnesses. Other exploratory analyses found that law enforcement witnesses were perceived as more trustworthy, more confidence, more knowledgeable, and more credible overall than other witnesses.
dc.format.extent 54 p.
dc.format.medium electronic
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.language English
dc.language.iso en_US
dc.publisher University of Alabama Libraries
dc.relation.ispartof The University of Alabama Electronic Theses and Dissertations
dc.relation.ispartof The University of Alabama Libraries Digital Collections
dc.relation.hasversion born digital
dc.rights All rights reserved by the author unless otherwise indicated.
dc.subject.other Clinical psychology
dc.subject.other Law
dc.title Smiling behaviors and credibility in actual trials: a naturalistic observation of witnesses
dc.type thesis
dc.type text University of Alabama. Dept. of Psychology Psychology The University of Alabama master's M.A.

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