Theses and Dissertations - Department of Kinesiology

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    The image of the Southern Branch, American Public Health Association held by its members
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 1969) Hering, Frederick William; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
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    Evaluation of Methods for Determining Various Components of Body Composition
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020) Cicone, Zackary; Esco, Michael R.; Fedewa, Michael V.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Doubly indirect methods of assessing body composition are commonly used in laboratory and practical settings. The purpose of this dissertation was to expand upon the methodological discrepancies associated with various techniques, and to provide improved equations to overcome these limitations. A series of three studies was conducted to 1) improve the estimation of underwater residual lung volume (RLV), 2) systematically review and quantify the error associated with single-frequency bioimpedance analysis (SFBIA) for the determination of total body water (TBW), and 3) develop a novel equation for predicting percent body fat (%BF) from skinfolds using a criterion multi-compartment model. The first study developed an equation for the prediction of underwater RLV in healthy adults using age and height as predictor variables. The new equation produced superior validity statistics upon cross-validation compared to four existing equations, indicating that it may be used by practitioners to accurately estimate underwater RLV during hydrostatic weighing. The second study systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed 264 effects from 51 original studies designed to compare SFBIA to criterion dilution methods for TBW estimation. Although a non-significant overall effect was identified, there was significant variability associated with SFBIA methodology (i.e., frequency and resistivity index) and sample sex (% female). Moderator analyses indicated that SFBIA procedures utilizing Ht2/R at 100 kHz produced the most accurate estimate of TBW when compared to isotope dilution techniques. The third study developed a skinfold-based equation for the prediction of five-compartment model %BF in a sample of healthy adults. The new equation outperformed selected existing equations when cross-validated, indicating its potential utility for practitioners concerned with obtaining accurate estimates of %BF in the general population.
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    Exploring High Stakes edTPA in Physical Education Teacher Education
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020) Baxter, Deborah Suzanne; Sinelnikov, Oleg A.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Educational reforms, such as the Educative Teacher Performance Assessment (edTPA) have affected not only classroom learning, but also curriculum and programs within teacher education institutions. Utilizing multiple case study design and action research to study the effects of edTPA, the focus of this research was to explore the perspectives of university physical education teacher education (PETE) faculty and changes made to PETE programs, examine and deconstruct PETE students’ socialization experiences, and engage in action research to determine the condition of my position regarding edTPA implementation. Data were analyzed utilizing multiple qualitative techniques. The purpose of the first study was to explore the extent of changes taking place within the context, structure, and culture of university PETE programs facilitating high stakes edTPA policy. Faculty reacted in three distinct ways to the process of change which were labelled: prevailers, conceders, or exceeders. The process of change appeared to be based upon an implementation continuum from isolation to internalization. The second study examined and deconstructed socialization experiences relative to the edTPA process of pre-service teachers during their physical education teacher education (PETE) program and their induction year as a physical education teacher. The following themes were identified: (a) initial interactions and impetus for teaching—engaging and fun; (b) instruction in PETE—learning a ton; (c) internship—gauging, I’m stunned; (d) implementation of edTPA—raging, I’m done; (e) induction—waging has begun. In the third study, I engaged in action research to facilitate edTPA implementation. Using self-study and action research, I analyzed the edTPA policy, reflected upon my teaching, and created edTPA learning activities. Results indicated that the edTPA policy has brought about dissention, taken away invention, and has led professors to subtract from their curricula. University programs have a responsibility to prepare effective physical education teachers who use the best practices for teaching. edTPA has the potential to “box students in” to direct instruction. It is imperative for PETE faculty to reflect upon the impetus and impact of changes made to their programs in light of edTPA. PETE faculty must continue to advocate for and teach meaningful evidence- and research-based PE practices while negotiating preparations for edTPA.
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    Exploring the Value Orientations of Inservice and Preservice Physical Education Teachers
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020) May, Leah; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    The focus of this research was to explore the value orientations expressed by expert and preservice physical education (PE) teachers. Data were collected with the short form of the value orientation inventory (VOI-SF) and multiple interpretive techniques. VOI-SF profiles were graphed and qualitative data were analyzed by employing analytic induction and constant comparison. The purpose of the first study was to determine the influence of an elementary methods course and early field experience (EFE) on preservice teachers’ (PTs’) value orientations by employing the theoretical perspective of occupational socialization. Key findings were that value orientations of PTs with teaching and moderate coaching orientations were influenced by the methods course and EFE while those of PTs with strong coaching orientations were not. Factors leading to this evolution were the curriculum model employed, the instructor, and PTs’ increased confidence, and knowledge of students. The second study purposed to determine the impact of two PTs value orientations on their interpretation and delivery of the skill themes approach. The VOI-SF results indicated that Meagan prioritized the social responsibility, learning process, and disciplinary mastery orientations, while Jared favored the social responsibility, self-actualization, and ecological integration perspectives. Qualitative data largely supported these value orientation profiles and indicated that the PTs’ approaches to teaching skill themes differed, evolved, and were influenced by their pedagogical beliefs. The purpose of the final study was to determine the influence of two effective and expert PE teachers’ value orientations on the curricula they delivered and the pedagogies they employed. Key findings were that both teachers started teaching with a disciplinary mastery orientation and expanded their views to include the social responsibility perspective. In addition, they employed curricula and pedagogies that were congruent with these perspectives. This research emphasizes the importance of exposing preservice and inservice teachers to different value orientations, curricular models, and pedagogies and requiring them to consider the congruence between their goals and objectives and the models and methods they employ.
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    Effect of Work-To-Rest Cycles on Cardiovascular Drift and Maximal Oxygen Uptake During Heat Stress
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020) Mulholland, Anne; Wingo, Jonathan E.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Cardiovascular (CV) strain, indexed as CV drift—a progressive increase in heart rate (HR) and decrease in stroke volume (SV) during prolonged exercise—is exacerbated by environmental heat stress and is accompanied by a decrease in maximal work capacity (V?O2max). To attenuate CV strain, work:rest ratios have been recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Whether these guidelines sufficiently mitigate CV drift and preserve V?O2max is unknown. PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that during moderate work (201-300 kcal/h) in hot conditions [indoor wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGTin)=29 °C] utilizing the recommended 45:15 work:rest ratio, CV drift will ‘accumulate’ over time, and the magnitude of accumulated CV drift will be proportional to decrements in V?O2max after 120 min. METHODS: Eight subjects [5 women; (mean±SD) age=25±5 y; body mass=74.8±11.6 kg; V?O2max=42.9±5.6 mL/kg/min] completed 3 sessions on different days. The first visit involved measurement of V?O2max (WBGTin=18.1±1.2 °C). The following 2 experimental trials were counterbalanced (WBGTin=29.0±0.6 °C). Moderate work was achieved by 2.5 min of arm curls (4.5 kg at 20/min) and 20 min of walking (V?O2=1.0–1.1 L/min) on a treadmill, repeated once for a total of 45 min of work, and then followed by 15 min of seated rest. HR and SV were measured at 15 and 45 min of each work bout to evaluate CV drift. The 120-min trial consisted of 2 full work-rest cycles followed by measurement of V?O2max; the 15-min trial replicated the first 15 min of the 120-min visit followed by measurement of V?O2max and was necessary to measure V?O2max before CV drift occurred. RESULTS: CV drift accumulated between 15 and 105 min: HR increased 16.7% (18±9 bpm, P=0.004) and SV decreased 16.9% (-12.3±5.9 mL, P=0.003), but V?O2max was not affected after 2 full work-rest cycles (P=0.14). Core body temperature increased by 0.5±0.2 °C (P=0.006) over 2 h. CONCLUSION: Although CV drift occurred after two 45:15 work:rest cycles, V?O2max was unaffected. Work capacity is preserved during 2 hours of work in the heat with rest cycles patterned like those in this study, but CV and thermal strain persist unabated.
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    Monitoring the Effects of Resistance Exercise on Heart Rate Variability
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020) Holmes, Clifton John Nicolas; Esco, Michael R.; Winchester, Lee J; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Heart rate variability (HRV) has become a popular tool for monitoring autonomic stress responses, however, the efficacy of HRV as a valid internal training load marker for resistance exercise has not been well-established. We conducted three studies to address this gap. Study 1 compared the effects of low, moderate, and high set volumes in acute resistance exercise sessions on post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation. Three full-body resistance exercise sessions of varying set volumes were performed with HRV being measured pre- and for 30 minutes post-exercise. Statistically significant differences were observed across sessions and recording times (p?.05), but not with the session × time interaction. When comparing pre-post exercise HRV, significant differences were found across all sessions. The low volume session was significantly different from both the moderate and high volume sessions, but no differences were found between moderate and high volume sessions. Study 2 determined the relationship between pre-post changes in HRV, neuromuscular performance, and biochemical fatigue markers in response to resistance exercise. A bout of high set volume resistance exercise was performed with HRV, neuromuscular performance, and biochemical fatigue markers being measured pre- and post-exercise. Statistically significant correlations were observed with ?HRV Post5-10 and ?Lactate immediate post-exercise (r = -0.440, p = .036), and ?HRV Post5-10 and ?Lactate Post30 (r = -0.549, p <.001). Study 3 examined the validity and reliability of HRV derived from smartphone photoplethysmography (PPG) under resting and post-resistance exercise conditions. Participants completed four resting, simultaneous ECG and PPG measurements on separate days and one measure post-resistance exercise. Significant, yet small (ES=0.2-0.6) to moderate (ES=1.14) differences were found between simultaneous measures with moderate-to-very large correlations (r=0.41-0.76) and good agreement at rest. For the intraday reliability of PPG, ICC was “nearly perfect” (ICC=0.91) and interday reliability ICC was “very large” (ICC=0.88). The use of smartphone PPG seems to be an appropriate surrogate for ECG. However, HRV may not be a sensitive enough method for detecting all differences in set volumes. Practitioners should use an integrative approach to assess an individual’s recovery status and readiness to perform.
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    (Re)Presenting the Margins: Life Histories of Minoritized Individuals
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Jowers, Richard F; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    This article-style dissertation focuses on the life histories of three diverse individuals. Little research has been done in the United States using life history methodologies within sports pedagogy. Several researchers have advocated for the continued use of life history methodologies to better understand and identify how different ethnicities and social identities experience marginality (Sparks et al., 1993; Dowling et al. 2015). Beyond using the life history method, all three of the studies focused on marginalization and presenting their counterstories by centering each participant’s voice. The first article’s purpose was to outline the participants’ Life History, and the study utilized Stereotype Threat and the Critical Race Theory tenets of microaggressions and counterstories. Specifically, the participant was an African American Physical Education teacher educator and higher education administrator. The second article presented a counter-narrative that rivals the dominant ideas and perspectives about Latino/a/x and Hispanic coaches. The purpose of the study, beyond presenting a comprehensive life history, was to explore how they experienced marginalization throughout their life and career, which was done using Latino/a/x Critical Race Theory. The final article’s purpose in this three-article dissertation was to find how women of color coaches experience marginalization through the lens of Critical Race Feminism. All three articles found that each participant experienced marginalization, microaggressions, and different forms of discrimination.
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    Physical Education Teacher Education Futures
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Brunsdon, Jamie Jacon; Curtner-Smith, Matthew; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    ABSTRACT The purpose of study one was to describe the influence of occupational socialization on the physical education teacher education (PETE) programs sport pedagogy doctoral students’ (DSs) intended to deliver once they began life as faculty members in universities and colleges. Participants were eight DSs located at four American universities. Data were collected with four interpretive techniques (formal and informal interviews, documents and artifacts, written outline of an ideal PETE program) and analyzed using analytic induction and constant comparison. DSs had conservative, liberal, and eclectic beliefs regarding PETE. The forces that shaped the DS’s views and beliefs were mostly similar to those described in previous research, although there were some new and nuanced findings. The study indicates the need for DSs to explore their own views regarding physical education and PETE and the forces that shaped their perspectives. The purpose of study two was to describe the influence of secondary organizational socialization on seven early career faculty members’ (FMs) implementation of physical education teacher education (PETE). Data were collected with four qualitative techniques and analyzed with standard interpretive methods. Cultural elements and conditions that helped or hindered FMs’ deliver PETE were identified. FMs coped with negative and unfavorable elements of their cultures and conditions by fully complying with, strategically complying with, and strategically redefining their situations, or finding a new position. The stories of these FMs should inspire administrators, senior colleagues, and those training doctoral students to reflect on the degree to which they help or hinder neophyte FMs, as well as aid doctoral students preparing to make the transition into faculty positions. The purpose of study three was to describe the impact of secondary organizational socialization on mid-career faculty members’ (FMs) delivery of physical education teacher education (PETE). Data were collected with four qualitative techniques and analyzed using analytic induction and constant comparison. Cultural components and conditions that supported or undermined the FMs’ implement PETE were identified. FMs fully complied with positive aspects of their cultures and conditions and coped with negative and unfavorable aspects by strategically complying with or strategically redefining their situations, or finding a new position. These FMs’ stories should help doctoral students transition into higher education and inspire other FMs and administrators to reflect on the extent to which they support or undermine those attempting to conduct PETE.
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    A Comparison of Traditional Blood Flow Restriction Versus Band Tissue Flossing for Induction of Muscular Fatigue
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Jones, Morgan Taylor; Winchester, Lee J; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) exaggerates metabolic stress and increases the number of muscle fibers recruited, resulting in greater improvements in muscular strength. An alternative method for occluding blood flow is band tissue flossing (BTF), in which an elastic band is wrapped around the limb. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of BTF to BFR on muscular fatigue. METHODS: Fifteen subjects (6 females; mean ± SD: age = 23.3 ± 0.1y, BMI = 25.7 ± 0.9kg/m2, thigh circumference = 59.9 ± 1.6cm) completed 3 sessions on separate days, each under a different condition: control (CON), BFR at 50% limb occlusion pressure, and BTF. During each session, participants performed maximal effort leg extension and flexion for 3 sets of 20 repetitions using an isokinetic dynamometer. At the start of each session, baseline heart rate (HR), lactate, glucose, and blood flow were recorded. During the BFR and BTF sessions, HR and blood flow were recorded before and 1-minute after occlusion. HR, glucose, and lactate were recorded immediately post- and 1-minute post-exercise for all sessions. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare outcome measures between time points as well as between conditions. RESULTS: BFR and BTF both caused significant increases in HR compared to baseline (4.67 ± 2.14 BPM and 6.07 ± 2.56 BPM, both p < 0.01, respectively), with no significant differences between conditions. BTF significantly decreased arterial distance (-0.04 ± 0.04cm, p = 0.001), volume flow (-7.56 ± 6.88 cc/min, p = 0.001), and arterial area (-0.02 ± 0.01cm2, p < 0.001). Whereas BFR significantly decreased time-averaged mean velocity (-1.03 ± 1.65cm/s, p = 0.001). BTF caused a greater reduction in arterial distance compared to BFR (p = 0.006). However, no differences were observed in all dynamometry, electromyography, glucose, or lactate measures between occlusion conditions. CONCLUSION: BTF occluded more blood flow and yielded comparable changes in muscular fatigue when compared to BFR, providing an inexpensive training alternative when more sophisticated laboratory techniques are unavailable.
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    Effects of Proximal Limb Blood Flow Restriction Training on Distal Limb Performance and Recovery
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Saffold, Keith; Winchester, Lee J; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Purpose: To determine if proximal limb blood flow restriction (BFR) influences muscular performance and recovery of the distal limb musculature (i.e., gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior). Methods: Participants (N = 20; M±SD: 23.0 ± 3.8 years; 174.1 ± 9.0 cm; 77.9 ± 13.0 kg; 23.8 ± 8.6%body fat) completed a baseline visit and two experimental conditions consisting of exercise only (control; CON) and exercise with BFR. CON and BFR were performed in a counter-balanced order. Personal tourniquet pressure (PTP) was determined in each leg using the Delfi PTS II system at the BFR session only. Participants underwent the following assessments before and after each experimental visit: anatomical cross-sectional area (CSA) of the gastrocnemius, toe tap test, average stride length test, and counter-movement jump. The exercise protocol consisted of 3 sets of 15 repetitions of ankle plantarflexion (PF) and dorsiflexion (DF at 60 and 500 degrees per second, respectively, using an isokinetic dynamometer. Average force per repetition and total work performed were measured by the isokinetic dynamometer for both PF and DF during exercise. The only difference between BFR and CON was the application of BFR during the exercise protocol (unilateral occlusion at 80% of PTP, applied 30 s before initiating exercise on each leg). Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to determine if changes in CSA, and measures of muscular strength and performance differed by BFR application (condition x time). Significance was set as p<0.05. Results: Average force per repetition and total work performed was lower during BFR compared to CON for both PF and DF (p<0.05 for both). CSA was increased post- versus pre-exercise following BFR compared to CON (p<0.05). Likewise, toe taps and stride length performance was decreased post- versus pre-exercise following BFR compared to CON(both p<0.05). Jump height decreased post- compared to pre-exercise with no difference between conditions (p<0.05). Conclusion: The addition of BFR to exercise elicited higher levels of muscular fatigue and decreased muscular performance compared to CON. These impairments were far greater than expected, producing significant reductions in force production, neuromuscular activation, and recovery rate.
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    The Efficacy of Blood Flow Restriction During High Intensity Resistance Exercise
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Hornikel, Bjoern; Winchester, Lee J; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Blood flow restriction (BFR) resistance training has demonstrated its effectiveness for inducing hypertrophic adaptations at much lower intensities (20-30% one-repetition maximum (1RM)) compared to traditional high-intensity (>65% 1RM) recommendations. Limited research has examined BFR in conjunction with high-intensity resistance training, with mixed results. The purpose of this dissertation was to expand upon this understudied area with a series of three studies to 1) better understand blood flow responses in the lower limbs with varying occlusion pressures, 2) determine the effect of high-intensity BFR (HI-BFR) resistance exercise on fatigue, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and pain, and 3) examine the influence of HI-BFR on metabolic stress, muscle damage, and hypoxia. Study 1 examined the effects of varying BFR occlusion pressures on blood flow volume in the legs. Results indicate a potential 50% limb occlusion pressure (LOP) threshold at which point statistically significant reductions in blood flow volume occur in the posterior tibial artery. An observed plateau in blood flow reductions between 60-80%LOP indicates the potential for reduced occlusion pressure during exercise. Study 2 examined the effects of HI-BFR on inter-set fatigue, RPE, and Pain, in addition to post-exercise neuromuscular fatigue/impairment. Significantly greater number of total repetitions and repetitions during sets 1, 2, and 4 (p < .05) were performed in the CTRL condition. Although RPE between conditions was similar across all sets (p ≥ .05), perceived pain was significantly greater in BFR across all sets (p < .05). Changes in neuromuscular performance measures were consistent across exercise conditions. Study 3 investigated the effect of HI-BFR on metabolic stress, muscle swelling, and muscle damage in response to a back-squat protocol. Significantly lower blood lactate concentrations were measured following the BFR exercise stimulus, compared to CTRL (p = .001). No significant differences in muscle swelling were observed between conditions. Post-exercise interleukin-6 was significantly greater following the BFR exercise (p = .007). The use of BFR during high-intensity resistance exercise seems to be a useful method for advanced induction of fatigue during exercise, although the reduced exercise volume due to fatigue and pain limits the overall acute hypertrophic mechanistic responses.
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    The impact of an out-of-school swimming program for underserved children and youth on stakeholders
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020-12) Susnara, Daniela M.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an out-of-school swimming program (OSSP) for underserved children and youth on its stakeholders. Specific research questions (a) explored the impact of the OSSP on children and youth, (b) described the perspectives and practices of instructors working in the OSSP, (c) examined the factors which shaped these perspectives and practices, and (d) described community partners’(CPs) perceptions of the OSSP. Participants were 200 children and youth who attended the OSSP, 2 female instructors, 4 CPs associated with the OSSP, and parents of the children and youth who participated in the program. A theoretical perspective was derived from the literature on socialization, as well as community-engaged scholarship. A mixed-methods design was used to measure the program impact on children and youth. Aquatic skill and knowledge of water safety were measured through assessments. These data were examined through descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Additional data were collected through qualitative methods. The perspectives, practices, and perceptions of the instructors and CPs were also measured using interpretive methods including, non-participant observation, informal interviews, formal interviews, document analysis, and written feedback. Standard interpretive methods were employed to analyze the data these techniques yielded. Several key findings emerged: (a) the children and youth improved their aquatic skill and knowledge of water safety and became confident in their aquatic ability and knowledge, (b) the instructors were highly skilled and had well-developed sets of beliefs about teaching swimming and working with disadvantaged children and youth by the end of the OSSP, and (c) the CPs found the OSSP to be relevant, to have a high level of reciprocity, and to be resilient. The OSSP was shown to counter structural, institutional, personal, and cultural barriers that limited underserved children’s and youths’ access to and value of swimming. The study suggests well trained instructors can be a component to overcoming these barriers. Others aiming to design similar programs may benefit from examining the organizational structure and content of the OSSP.
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    Body fat percentage via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry following multiple different approaches compared to a laboratory-based 3-compartment model
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2019) Welborn, Bailey Arthur; Esco, Michael R.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) derived body volume (BV) equations in a multi-compartment model for estimates of body fat percentage (BF%) in comparison to traditional under water weighing (UWW) measures of BV. BF% was estimated using three-compartment (3C), two-compartment (2C) models, and the DXA. The 3C-Siri equation with UWW for BV and deuterium oxide (D2O) for total body water (TBW) was used as the criterion. One hundred twenty-nine adults (55 men and 74 women) volunteered to participate (age = 30 ± 13 years). DXA-derived BV was determined with the recent equations from Smith-Ryan et al. and Wilson et al. and then incorporated into multi-compartment models (i.e., 3CSiri-SR and 3CSiri-W). The 3CSiri-SR and 3CSiri-W DXA-derived BV values were highly correlated with UWW measured BV (74.24L, 74.30L, and 71.97L, respectively, and r=.999 for both). However, the mean BF% was overestimated in all multi-compartment models regardless of which DXA-derived BV equation was used. These results were consistent for the total sample and when stratified by sex, with the observed error ranging from 4.92% to 17.75% (effect size [ES] = .61 to 1.96, all p<.001). The correlation between the DXA-derived BV and 3C-criterion BF% was strongest for both Smith-Ryan et al. and Wilson et al. when utilized in the Siri model (i.e., 3CSiri-SR and 3CSiri-W) in the total sample, (r= .979 and .964, respectively) for men, (r= .974 and .971, respectively) and for women (r= .981 and .973, respectively). The 3CSiri-SR yielded the best accuracy in the total sample, as well as when stratified by men, and women as indicated by the smallest SEE of all methods (1.91%, 1.83%, and 1.76% respectively), although it overestimated BF% by 6% in both sex-specific subgroups. These data indicate that both DXA-derived BV equations are strongly correlated with UWW, however do not provide an accurate measure when incorporated in a 3-compartment model for estimation of BF%. This is likely due to the higher BV values produced by the DXA-derived equations (roughly 2 liters), which overestimated BF% by roughly 5%.
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    The efficacy of subjective and objective indices of recovery during and following exhaustive resistance exercise
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2019) Tolusso, Danilo V.; Esco, Michael R.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Monitoring recovery status within and between exercise sessions can optimize training adaptations. As such, it is critical that the tools we use to monitor recovery status are both valid and reliable. One such tool, perceptual recovery status (PRS), has been developed to assess recovery status between days of repeated sprinting exercise. Yet, few studies have investigated the validity of PRS as a marker of recovery between sets or days of resistance exercise, or how fatigue influences the stability of performance indices. We conducted three studies to address these gaps. Study 1 investigated the utility of PRS as a marker of daily recovery following a bout of resistance exercise. Performance tests and PRS were recorded as baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h following a fatiguing high-volume back squatting protocol. Strong correlations were revealed between PRS and countermovement jump, bar velocity, isokinetic knee extension, and isometric mid-thigh pull (r = .61 to .86; p < .001). Study 2 evaluated the validity of PRS as a marker of inter-set recovery using bar velocity metrics during a high-volume back squatting protocol. Peak and mean bar velocity, as well as their decrements within a set were calculated across 4 sets of back squat. Main effects for time were observed for PRS and mean bar velocity metrics (p < .05) where all metrics tended to decrease throughout the bout. Strong correlations were observed between PRS all bar velocity metrics (r = .55-.65; p ≤ .001). Study 3 investigated the influence of fatigue on the stability of performance indices following a single bout of resistance exercise. Daily recovery scores––calculated from performance tests recorded at baseline and again at 24, 48, and 72 h post-fatiguing protocol––were used to represent four different fatigue states (FS). Reliability analyses for each performance test revealed that intraclass-correlation coefficients (ICC) remained high (ICC > .79) and standard error of the measurement values were comparable regardless of an individual’s FS. Therefore, PRS can be used as a subjective metric of recovery between sets and days of exercise and FS does not affect the stability of objective performance metrics.
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    Teaching personal and social responsibility in afterschool programming and beyond
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2019) Ivy, Victoria; Richards, Kevin; Sinelnikov, Oleg; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Schools continue to become more diverse though teachers and afterschool program coordinator are unprepared to work in such settings. The teaching personal and social responsibility model (Hellison, 2011) serves as a tool to guide practitioners and teacher through the process of developing culturally responsive pedagogies, providing positive social and emotional learning experiences for youth, and guiding participants through the process of applying knowledge learned in the model’s setting to alternative environments such as during the school day or at home. The first study utilized the culturally relevant physical education model and occupational socialization theory as tools to understand how preservice teachers may address their previous life experiences during their professional socialization. The purpose of the first study was to understand the ways in which socialization experiences influenced the development of culturally relevant physical education through the teaching personal and social responsibility model. Qualitative findings indicated that preservice teachers began to get to know their students, understand differences, and make efforts to connect with them. Suggestions are made regarding physical education teacher training in the future. The second study utilizes self-study of teacher education practice to understand a teaching personal and social responsibility practitioners’ experiences, along with occupational socialization theory. Results indicated that there was a high degree of initial frustration, but as relationships and experience developed over time, the practitioner grew to fully enjoy and utilize the model and value self-study. The purpose of the third study was to explore the social-institutional conditions and teacher and learning practices that guide their social-emotional learning and overall healthy development. Ethnographic findings indicated that the classroom context conflicted with afterschool program contexts, and that the school setting was predominantly needs-thwarting while the afterschool program was a needs-supporting environment.
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    Cardiovascular drift and maximal oxygen uptake during heat stress in women
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2019) Stone, Tori; Wingo, Jonathan E.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    During prolonged constant-rate exercise, heart rate and stroke volume progressively increase and decrease, respectively, characterizing cardiovascular (CV) drift. CV drift is greater when driven by hyperthermia and generally results in proportional decreases in maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max). Less is known about CV drift and decrements in V̇O2max in women because nearly all studies on this topic focused on men. This dissertation determined the effects of hormonal status, fitness level, and sudomotor function on CV drift and V̇O2max in women. In 3 separate studies, CV drift was measured during 45 min of cycling in 35 °C, immediately followed by measurement of V̇O2max. V̇O2max also was measured after 15 min in a separate trial to assess changes in V̇O2max over the same time interval that CV drift occurred. Study 1 compared follicular (FP) and luteal phases (LP) of the menstrual cycle during exercise at 60% V̇O2max. Resting and exercise core temperatures (Tre) were higher in LP, but increases during exercise (ΔTre) were similar to FP, so the CV drift/V̇O2max relationship was not modulated by phase. Study 2 compared high-fit (HI) and low-fit (LO) women during exercise at 60% V̇O2max (REL) and 500 W of metabolic heat production (FIXED). During REL, heat production and ΔTre were significantly greater in HI versus LO, as were magnitudes of CV drift and decrements in V̇O2max. During FIXED, heat production, ΔTre, CV drift, and V̇O2max were similar between groups. Study 3 compared women to men during exercise at 500 W of metabolic heat production. For women, sweating plateaued and accelerated ΔTre compared to men, but differences in CV drift and V̇O2max were not statistically discernible between sexes. In conclusion, the relationship between CV drift and V̇O2max during heat stress does not change across the menstrual cycle and is not affected by fitness level, independent of metabolic heat production. The relationship is similar between men and women during 45 min of exercise at the same, relatively high load.
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    Negotiations patterns of preservice and student teachers within physical education
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2018) McEntyre, Kelsey; Curtner-Smith, Matthew; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Study One described patterns of teacher-student negotiation when preservice teachers (PTs) taught within the teaching personal and social responsibility (TPSR) model. The research questions examined forms and extent of negotiations. Seven PTs in an elementary early field experience (EFE) taught three to four mini-units of various fundamental movement skills. In two units, negotiations became more positive; in three, they remained constant; and in two, they become more negative. Key factors influencing patterns of negotiation were PTs’ comprehension of and comfort with the TPSR model; class size; and students’ age, gender, and skill level. The second study described patterns of negotiation engaged in by 16 PCTs and their students during a physical education early field experience (EFE) within six lessons of various content to second and fourth grade students. Seven PCTs were relatively effective negotiators, while nine were relatively ineffective. Negotiation skills were influenced by PCTs’ comfort with physical education, pedagogical knowledge, content knowledge, and pedagogical content knowledge. Negotiations initiated were similar to those described in previous studies. The type and amount of student-initiated negotiation was influenced by their gender, age, and skill level, and content taught. The third study produced a quantified longitudinal negotiation profile for one preservice teacher (PT; George) teaching three sport education (SE) seasons. Research questions examined forms and extent of negotiations and differences between grade levels. The 47 lessons in George’s sixth, seventh, and eighth grade SE season on handball were filmed and coded with an event recording systematic observation instrument designed to classify and categorize negotiations as they occur. Results revealed that negotiations initiated by George and his students were relatively infrequent, with few differences between the SE seasons. The types and foci of the negotiations were similar to those described in previous qualitative studies as were the tactics used to initiate the negotiations. The pattern of the negotiations in this study were also similar to those in previous qualitative research focused on SE.
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    Impact of a physical education teacher’s age on elementary, middle school, and high school students’ perceptions of effectivenss and learning
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2018) Pennington, Colin Grant; Curtner-Smith, Matthew; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Age-related psychosocial research indicates that adults, adolescents, and children generally prefer features of younger looking faces over those of older, often having negative perceptions and connotations of aging/abilities of older people. Limited research has investigated the influence appearance on physical education teachers’ effectiveness. The present studies examined the impact of a physical education teacher’s apparent age on American students’ learning and perceptions of the teacher. Participants were students from two elementary schools (4th-5th grade, N = 188), two middle schools (6th-8th grade, N = 273); and two high schools (9th-12th grade, N = 114). Students were randomly assigned to view one of two virtually identical films of swimming lessons taught by the same teacher. In the young-appearance lesson (YAL), the teacher was relatively youthful appearing. In the middle-aged lesson (MAL), he had been aged by a theatrical makeup artist to appear much older. Immediately following the viewing of their assigned lesson, students completed a lesson content examination and a questionnaire about their perceptions of the teacher. Inferential statistical tests for Study One indicated that elementary students who watched the YAL scored significantly higher on the content examination and perceived the teacher to be significantly more likeable, competent, and a better role model than did the students who viewed the MAL, potentially supporting either a sociological or psychological/developmental explanation for how and why students of different ages respond to and learn from differently aged physical education teachers. Inferential statistical tests for Study Two revealed that middle school students who watched the YAL learned more from the teacher and perceived the teacher more favorably (more likeable and a better role model), providing further support for a sociological explanation of how and why students of different ages respond to and learn from physical education teachers of different ages. Inferential statistical tests for Study Three indicated that high school students who watched the MAL perceived the teacher more favorably (more positive role model). Performance on the content examination was similar for both groups, supporting a psychological/developmental explanation of how and why students respond to and learn from physical education teachers of different ages.
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    Transformative pedagogy in physical education
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2018) Lynch, Shrehan; Curtner-Smith, Matthew; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    The goal of researching sociocultural perspectives and transformative pedagogies has been to improve society for all individuals. In particular, physical education (PE) and physical education teacher education (PETE) has been determined an under researched discipline in regard to transformative practice for equity and justice. Therefore, the purpose of the first study one was to determine the influence of one sociocultural foundations class taught by Florence, a teacher educator, on the perspectives and practices of two PE pre-service teachers (PTs), Michael and Bob. The primary data sources were from nine qualitative techniques including non-participant observation, formal and informal interviews, exit slips, three fictional PE teaching scenarios, a fictional curriculum outline, three stimulated recall interviews, documents, and digital interactions. The data were analyzed using theoretical thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006). The findings illustrated that both PTs faced frustration and discomfort during class. Nevertheless, the class did resonate and raise the PTs critical awareness related to sociocultural issues in PE. Key reasons for this change were attributed to the deinstitutionalizing pedagogical methods employed by Florence. Florence's "problem-posing" education (Freire, 1970) prompted the PTs to question their perspectives and assumptions related to society and culture. Study two bridged the gap between PT and practicing teacher and sought to describe one elementary school physical education teacher’s attempt to employ transformative pedagogy. The primary data sources were from eight qualitative techniques including formal and informal interviews, conversations, short films, document and content analysis, social media accounts, and an electronic journal. An inductive and deductive analysis (Patton, 2015) revealed that Harry, the physical educator, embedded transformative pedagogy into his practice through four themes: (a) the big kid (b) restorative practice principles (c) a democratic curriculum, and (d) diverse forms of assessment. Furthermore, facilitators and barriers to Harry’s practice were illustrated through internal and external themes. The findings provided meaningful implications for PTs, physical educators, and teacher educators working in social justice education. The third study described sport pedagogy faculty member’s (FM’s) efforts at engaging in transformative physical education teacher education (T-PETE). T-PETE stresses the importance of FMs creating social change through their pedagogical approach and begins by asking preservice teachers to reflect on their perspectives and practices (Tinning, 2017; Ukpokodu, 2009). Participants were three white, female, able-bodied, lesbian/gay sport pedagogy FM’s. The study was conducted in the United States. Feminist theory and feminist pedagogy drove data collection and analysis. Data were collected by employing a series of qualitative techniques. An inductive and deductive analysis revealed that FM’s had specific T-PETE goals, content, and pedagogies. Furthermore, several internal and external factors served to facilitate and limit the FM’s effectiveness when engaging in T-PETE. The findings suggest that program-wide PETE reform is necessary in the United States for creating social change, and influencing preservice teachers perspectives and practices.
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    Exploring the utility of unobtrusive methods of acquiring heart rate variability at rest and following exercise
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2018) Dobbs, Ward; Esco, Michael R.; Fedewa, Michael V.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Use heart rate variability (HRV) for monitoring cardio-autonomic perturbations in response to physical stimuli has increased in popularity and demand. However, the utility of measures of HRV to reflect acute changes in muscle recovery from exercise is controversial. As criterion short-term HRV recordings are performed with a gold standard electrocardiogram (ECG), less obtrusive methods have been developed for improved practicality of HRV measures. Three studies were performed to investigate the accuracy of less obtrusive methods for acquiring HRV and the utility of HRV for tracking changes in muscular performance recovery. The first study involved a systematic review and meta-analysis on the accuracy of portable devices for acquiring HRV. Twenty-three studies yielded 301 effects and revealed that HRV measures acquired from portable devices differed from those obtained from ECG (ES=0.23, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.42), although this effect was small and highly heterogeneous (I2=78.6%, 95% CI: 76.2%, 80.7%). Moderator analysis revealed that HRV metric (p<0.001), position (p=0.033), and biological sex (β=0.45, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.61; p<0.001), but not portable device, modulated the degree of absolute error. Within metric, absolute error was significantly higher when expressed as SDNN (ES=0.44) compared to any other metric but was no longer significantly different after a sensitivity analysis removed outliers. Likewise, the error associated with the tilt/recovery position was significantly higher than any other position and remained significantly different without outliers in the model. In the second study, the time course in recovery between criterion short-term HRV measures and acute muscular performance 72 hours following an exhaustive bout of resistance training was investigated. All HRV metrics had a significant interaction with muscular performance (performance) over time (p < .01) indicating change scores in performance and HRV following the physiological stressor were not parallel and did not track. Mean change scores in all HRV metrics significantly differed from performance across time (p < .05), except the standard deviation of all normal-to-normal R-R intervals (SDNN), low frequency power (LF), and the standard deviation of long-term HRV from the Poincaré plot (SD2) at the 0.5-hr mark, and high frequency power (HF) at the 24-hr time point. Furthermore, repeated measures correlation analysis indicated a lack of intra-individual association between the change in performance and HRV over time (all < .45). In the third study, the agreement between ultra-short and criterion short-term HRV measures surrounding a bout of exhaustive resistance training was investigated. Results displayed the highest levels of agreement from the log-transformed (ln) root mean square of successive R-R differences (lnRMSSD) [LOA = -0.91– 0.69, ICC = .91, p = .082, ES = 0.15] and the standard deviation of the points through the width of the plot (lnSD1) [LOA = -0.90 – 0.72, ICC = .91, p = .156, ES = 0.13] compared to all other metrics.