Theses and Dissertations - Department of Educational Studies in Psychology, Research Methodology, and Counseling

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    Stereotyping and its Possible Association with Aspects of Mindfulness and Multicultural Counseling Competence in Graduate Students in Mental Health Fields
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020) Webber, Wesley Barton; Burnham, Joy J.; Soylu, Firat; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Counselors are tasked with developing an understanding of members of diverse groups and creating therapeutic relationships with them. However, human tendencies towards implicit biases and stereotyping towards groups can interfere with one’s ability to understand and connect with individuals from those groups. The counseling field recognizes the importance of avoiding the imposition of personal attitudes and beliefs onto clients, and many in the field are interested in what new understanding neuroscience can offer counselors. In this context, the present study hypothesized that graduate students in mental health fields would show neural and behavioral indicators of stereotype activation towards black men, black women, white men, and white women. A computerized priming experiment with an implicit design was used to detect a neural marker (N400 effect) and a behavioral marker (reaction time effect) of stereotype activation towards these groups. Based on theory and previous research, two factors were hypothesized to be associated with less stereotype activation—mindful observing (an aspect of mindfulness) and multicultural awareness (an aspect of multicultural counseling competence). The hypothesis that graduate students in mental health fields would show indicators of stereotyping was partially supported, as the hypothesized N400 and reaction time effects indicative of stereotyping were found towards black men and white women. The hypotheses that mindful observing and multicultural awareness would relate to stereotype activation were not supported, as these factors were not shown to relate to the stereotyping effects towards black men and white women. Unexpected findings were that participants showed an effect in the opposite direction of that indicative of stereotyping towards white men in the reaction time data. Additionally, across all experimental conditions those high in multicultural awareness also showed this opposite reaction time effect. Counselor educators, counselors-in-training, and practitioners should use this study’s findings to reflect deeply on biases and stereotyping that could unknowingly influence work with clients if such biases and stereotypes are not acknowledged. The findings should also inform future studies of intersectional (rather than strictly unidimensional) stereotype activation. This conception of stereotyping is useful in that it reflects the diverse cultural world in which stereotypes and biases emerge.
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    Pyschosocial Barriers to Undergraduate Students' Moral Judgment
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020) Roberts, Lucy Elliott; Walker, David I; Lawson, Michael J; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Historically, higher education has had a significant impact on an individual’s moral development due to multiple social and cognitive factors suggested for promoting growth (Rest, 1986; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991, King & Mayhew, 2002). Yet, more recent studies have evidenced a decline in advanced reasoning scores amongst undergraduate students compared to previous generations with little attention to potential factors that contribute to these trends. In order to address declining moral reasoning scores, this study was designed to identify potential psychosocial barriers that may hinder an individual’s moral development in college. Using a quantitative, exploratory research design, this study looked at the ways in which symptoms of trait anxiety and depression may interfere with a student’s ability to fully engage in the collegiate experience, and therefore engage in the types of opportunities that may support their moral growth. Findings demonstrated a weak but unique relationship between moderate levels of anxiety and a prioritization of reasoning that relies on laws and norms when considering social cooperation, even when controlling for depression. However, there was no evidence of the effects of anxiety evidenced for any other levels of moral reasoning. Future studies may seek to expound upon these findings by attending to various personal characteristics of students’ experiences as well as examining other types of moral judgement reasoning.
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    The Moral and Spiritual Dimensions of Freedom Movement Exemplars
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020) Harvey, Robin Lynette; Burnham, Joy J.; Thoma, Steve J; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    ABSTRACT This exploratory study examined the life stories of Freedom Movement exemplars. Previous exemplar studies have indicated the presence of spiritual factors in the consideration of motivations behind exemplary action. The present study utilized the Life Story Interview (McAdams, 2008) with Freedom Movement exemplars, whose existing language explicitly stated moral and spiritual dimensions. For this study, Life Story Interviews were scored for moral personality characteristics as well as for agency, communion, redemptive sequences, and contamination sequences. Results indicated that spiritual elements were present in the Life Story interviews of Freedom Movement exemplars. Spiritual dimensions were discussed in the shaping of the exemplars’ lives, offering meaning and purpose to them. Freedom Movement exemplar scores for moral personality characteristics were exceedingly high, including the normally polar characteristics of dominance and nurturance. Previous exemplar research (e.g., Walker & Frimer, 2007) has suggested some divergence in characteristics between exemplars, where caring exemplars tended to be more nurturing and brave exemplars tended to be more dominant. Freedom Movement exemplars exhibited both moral personality characteristics of dominance and nurturance, implying they possess an unusual makeup of moral personality characteristics.
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    The Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Response Verification in Mathematical Tasks
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Rivera, Brian; Soylu, Firat; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    A crucial skill underlying all facets of arithmetic knowledge is the ability to distinguish correct solutions from incorrect ones. For this reason, arithmetic verification tasks have been widely used to study numerical cognition. The experimental manipulation of problems and solutions using this experimental paradigm allows to probe the mechanisms participants use to solve these arithmetic problems. Results have reliably shown that verification of correct arithmetic solutions engages different cognitive processes than verification of incorrect solutions. Given how fundamental distinguishing between correct and incorrect arithmetic solutions is for mathematical development, understanding the neurocognitive processes involved in arithmetic verification can also help better understand why fractions are notoriously difficult to learn. Using behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging techniques, this dissertation aims to extend the current understanding of arithmetic and fraction processing by (a) showing how fraction processing shares similar neurocognitive mechanisms as arithmetic processing, (b) illustrating how fraction components can facilitate or interfere with magnitude verification, and (c) describing the neural correlates of arithmetic verification. The findings from three studies using the arithmetic verification paradigm are integrated under a predictive processing framework which grounds arithmetic verification in a neurobiological plausible functioning of the nervous system and provides a foundation for future work.
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    Examining Moral Identity from Multiple Perspectives in Order to Promote its Development
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Dawson, Kelsie; Han, Hyemin; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Moral identity is generally defined as considering moral values important to an individual’s overall sense of self. It has received much attention in the field for being significant for helping to promote moral behavior. Because of this, the current dissertation conducted three studies to explore different aspects related to moral identity. Study 1 applied Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model to longitudinal data from the Civic Purpose Project in order to investigate the best predictors for moral identity two years after Time 1. Results showed that ethnic identity was the most significant predictor, along with school climate and school and neighborhood support. Study 2 investigated the best model for predicting beyond-the-self (BTS) motivation using moral identity and empathic traits. Results showed moral identity symbolization and perspective taking were the most significant predictors, along with moral identity internalization and empathic concern. Finally, Study 3 conducted a reanalysis of fMRI data in order to investigate the neural correlates of selfhood when responding to various moral violations. Results showed that the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex differently interacted with brain areas such as supplementary motor area, hippocampus, and fusiform gyrus depending on intentionality and type of violation. Implications for promoting development of moral identity and moral behavior are discussed.
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    Comparison of Team Sport Athlete's and Individual Sport Athlete's Moral Identity and Antisocial/Prosocial Behavior in Sports
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Hanle, Leah; Walker, David; Han, Hyemin; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    In this acknowledgement, I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to all the people who have contributed in different ways to the success of this work. Thanks to the members of my committee, Dr. Wind, Dr. Scofield, and Dr. Han. I appreciate the thought-provoking impulses and the expertise. Special thanks to my supervisor Dr. Walker for his critical and helpful suggestions throughout the entire thesis process. I highly appreciate the freedom he gave me in choosing the subject and the path of my research. Prior to the degree, I had no experience in research; - he was very understanding and patient and guided me through the different steps of the project. I would also like to thank my family and friends as they always encouraged me and never made me doubt the overall project. To Jamie - thank you for your tremendous support not only throughout the whole project but especially in the beginning of the writing process. I am very grateful for your emotional support as well as your professional insight and experience that you offered with no hesitation. Finally, to my parents for showing their love and support, for always being there and offering me an open ear when needed, thank you! If I had to take one thing away from this – never doubt!
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    Coaching Educators on Educating Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in an Early Childhood Inclusion Setting
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Lane, Morgan Elise; Witte, Tricia; Preast, June L; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    There is a considerable gap between evidence-based interventions intended to support students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and current classroom practice (Anderson et al., 2018; Artman-Meeker et al., 2015). Early childhood programs and educators are in crucial need of additional support and evidence-based services that address the growing need of specialized instruction for students with ASD (Corkum et al., 2014; Dyer & Redpath, 2021; Lauderdale-Littin & Brennan, 2018; Mueller & Brewer, 2013; Wilson & Landa, 2019). This study asked three questions: “Is there a functional relation between educator coaching and an increase in the frequency of the first, then board as measured by a behavior observation?”, “Is there a functional relation between educator coaching and a reduction in the frequency of disruptive behavior as measured by a behavior observation?”, and “Do educators find coaching socially acceptable as measured by a treatment acceptability measure?”. This study used single-case research methodology; specifically, a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design. There was resulting high variability of data across educator-child dyads, with no-to-minimal effect of coaching on educators’ use of first, then boards. Children’s behavior also fluctuated, and no conclusive results were found regarding the indirect impact of coaching educators. While there were limitations and other contextual factors, this study served as a foundation for further research expansion in the area of early childhood coaching.
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    Experiencing the Game: an Interpretive, Multi-Case Study of Video Game Spaces Using the Philosophies of John Dewey
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Dasambiagio-Moore, James; Burnham, Joy J.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Video games are widely regarded as sources of entertainment and research suggests theymay also possess an untapped educational potential (Gee, 2008; Squire, 2011). Though trending positively, the research on the educational efficacy of video games as been slow and primarily evaluates static game elements (de Freitas, 2018). Video games are created, and played, around the ability to enact experiences (Acks et al., 2020). Therefore, research into video games should inquire into the game experiences of its players (Salen, 2008). It is for this reason that John Dewey’s theories of experience, aesthetics, and education are proposed as a possible framework by which to study video game spaces. This study utilized an interpretive, multi-case study design that focused on the individual game experiences of Don, Mipha, and Urbosa as they played the Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild. Each participant took part in one introductory session and four gameplay sessions. Observations, recorded gameplay, think-aloud protocols, art creation, and interviews were used to better present the lived experiences of study participants. Inductive coding and cross-case analysis were then used to determine if participant game experiences met Dewey’s criteria for experience (1900, 1938, 1959), aesthetics (1959), and educational potential (1900, 1910, 1938, 1959). Evidence for all three areas were demonstrated within participants’ gameplay and led to the conclusion that Dewey’s theories can serve as a capable framework by which to evaluate the efficacy of players’ video game experiences.
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    Stigmatization and Nursing Education: an Investigation of Nursing Student Bias Related to Caring for Individuals Who Are Homeless
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Hall, Edward Brian; Erevelles, Nirmala NE; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Individuals who are homeless have long remained an underprivileged group with varied and complex medical needs. The National Health Care for the Homeless Council describes homelessness as a temporary condition in which a person or family lives with no consistent and permanent lodging. The intent of this qualitative study was to explore how final-semester nursing students at colleges in the southeastern United States perceive the medical needs of individuals who are homeless. Jack Mezirow’s transformational learning theory and the framework integrating normative influences on stigma served as the theoretical frameworks. Eleven final-semester nursing students at one college in the southeastern United States were interviewed regarding their perspectives on patients who are homeless and how their perspectives impact the care that they will offer these patients. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify the key themes that emerged from the data. Study data shows that nursing students believe that curriculum and learning opportunities should incorporate the needs of individuals who are homeless. Being aware of the attitudes of nursing students toward individuals who are homeless, educators can help train healthcare providers to critically reflect on these attitudes so that they can enact the best practices of care for the homeless population. The results of this study suggest that nurse educators can and should create lasting social change through the development of curriculum that increases critical consciousness.
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    Evaluating Psychometric Properties of an Existing Functional Communication Assessment for Deaf Individuals
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Schafer, Kent; Wind, Stefanie A; Preast, June L; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    There are a lack of psychometrically sound and non-invasive assessments to determine individuals’ strongest communication modality that researchers and practitioners can utilize within the deaf population. Researchers continue to have problems investigating effective communication modality for individuals with hearing loss to establish baselines for language usages. A communication assessment may provide better understanding of a deaf individual’s best receptive and expressive language skills. The purpose of the study is to create psychometric properties of one communication assessment designed by the Alabama Department of Mental Health. Williams and Crump (2019) designed the Communication Skills Assessment (CSA) to measure functional communication of deaf individuals in order to develop effective communication strategies during real time settings. The CSA is included in routine mental health screenings across the states of Alabama and South Carolina to develop effective communication access within mental health care because treatment is language-based. Rasch analysis was used to evaluate the psychometric properties for six out of eight domains in the CSA. A further analysis of etiology was conducted to measure the potential impact of expressive and receptive skills. Results suggested etiology difference was detected in certain communication skill level which may offer insight for potential complications that prevent efficacy in receptive or expressive communication. Suggestions are also provided for additional research to fill in the gaps with communication assessment for deaf individuals.
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    Preschool Paths: Understanding Implementation Fidelity and Social Validity in Community Contexts
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Bigham, Saterah; McDaniel, Sara C; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Children who grow up in poverty face unique challenges that can impact later functioning. Unequal access to quality early intervention services impacts children’s readiness to begin formal schooling. Early interventions that target social, emotional, and behavioral functioning can be used to mitigate negative influences of growing up in poverty and positively impact children’s lives. Problem behaviors tend to persist over time and challenging behaviors during the preschool years can be targeted with high quality social emotional learning programs. One program that has been found to be efficacious in increasing social emotional competence and reducing problem behaviors with younger populations is the Preschool Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (Preschool PATHS) program. The summer prior to Kindergarten presents a unique opportunity to enhance children’s social emotional competence and prepare them for formal schooling. The transition period during the summer prior to Kindergarten was the focus of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study. This study seeks to examine the critical factors of implementation fidelity and social validity to better understand how a community setting and agency staff can offer the Preschool PATHS program to at-risk preschool-aged children.
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    Exploring Rating Quality in the Context of High-Stakes Rater-Mediated Educational Assessments
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Guo, Wenjing; Wind, Stefanie; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Constructed response (CR) items are widely used in large-scale testing programs, including the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and many district and state-level assessments in the United States. One unique feature of CR items is that they depend on human raters to assess the quality of examinees’ work. The judgment of human raters is a relatively subjective process because it is based on raters’ own understanding of assessment context, interpretations of rubrics, expectations of performance and professional experiences. As a result, the process of human rating may bring some random errors or bias, which may unfairly affect the assignment of ratings. The main purpose of this dissertation is to provide insight into methodological issues that arise due to the role of rater judgments performance assessments. This dissertation includes three independent but related studies. The first study systematically explores the impacts of ignoring rater effects when they are present on estimates of student ability. Results suggest that in simulation conditions that reflect many large-scale mixed-format assessments, directly modeling rater effects yields more accurate student achievement estimates than estimation procedures that do not incorporate raters. The second study proposes an iterative parametric bootstrap procedure to help researchers and practitioners more accurately evaluate rater fit. The results indicate that the proposed iterative procedure performs best because it has well-controlled false positive rates, high true positive rates, and overall accuracy rates compared to using traditional parametric bootstrap procedure and rule-of-thumb critical values. The third study examines the quality of ratings in the Georgia Middle Grades Writing Assessment using both the Partial Credit model formulation of Many Facets Rasch model (PC-MFR) and a Hierarchical Rater Model based on a signal detection model (HRM-SDT). Major findings suggests that rating quality varies across four writing domains, that rating quality varies across each category with each domain, that raters use the rating scale category in a psychometrically sound way, and that there is some correspondence between rating quality indices based on PC-MFR model and HRM-SDT.
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    The role of social identity in the academic experiences of African American college students
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Barnes, Kristoni Tierra; Guyotte, Kelly W.; Wang, Yurou; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    When it comes to who is responsible for the academic gap, there is significant debate. Based upon the literature, both the psychological and social factors that made up and maintain a society should be held accountable. Social identity theory and self-determination theory provide conceptual frameworks to explore perceptions and experiences related to social identity and academic achievements among undergraduate college students enrolled at a historically White institution. Together these theories consider the influence social identity has on African American students’ academic experiences and motives to achieve academically. The purpose of this study is to explore perceptions and experiences related to social identity and academic achievement among undergraduate African American college students enrolled at a historically White institution. Seven volunteers who met the selection criteria participated in this study. For this particular qualitative research project, I utilized an approach called qualitative interviewing. There were a total of 6 demographic questions and 8 primary interview study questions. Findings from this study add to the paradigm shift of African American students being aware of the stereotypes affiliated with African American students and using the pressures of disproving stereotypes as motivation to achieve academically.
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    Video game psychodynamics: a grounded theory of video game discussion in counseling
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) DaSambiagio-Moore, Chris; Burnham, Joy J.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Video games are an emerging topic of discussion among researchers and practitioners of the counseling profession. Little, however, is known about the counseling experiences of video gamer clients. The purpose of this study was to develop an emerging grounded theory that explains the process and impact of client video game discussion in counseling. The study explored the qualitative experiences of eight participants that have discussed their video gaming identities or experiences with a counselor. Data collection consisted of semi-structured interviews that were chiefly concerned with a participant’s relationship to video games, motivations for discussing video games in counseling, and perceived experiences of discussing video games with their counselor. A six-step coding process was used to analyze the data in order to answer the research questions. Emergent themes grounded in the data included: consumption, connection, identification, distress, discovery, positive experience, negative experience, and vulnerability. Findings revealed that video game discussions were significant to the participants’ overall experience in counseling. These findings informed the emerging grounded theory, Video Game Psychodynamics, which explains the process of client video game discussion in counseling. Implications for researchers and practitioners are presented.
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    The promise of longitudinal learning experiences for medical education and student well-being
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Hubner, Brook; Lawson, Michael A.; Walker, David Ian; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    There is a need to improve medical student well-being both for individual wellness and for the well-being of patients. A fundamental role of medical education is to develop socially and clinically competent, compassionate physicians and address the factors that impact student well-being. Research and intervention efforts within medical education are limited by a narrow, individual-level focus on the prevention of psychological pathology and health promotion through self-care, stress reduction, and social support. Moreover, these efforts lack theoretically framed operational definitions which consider well-being as environments that foster students’ needs and goals in pursuit of the full functioning of the whole self. Strengthening conceptualizations of well-being provides a way to optimize student personal and professional growth and patient care. The purpose of this three-article dissertation is (1) to introduce a theory-based approach to medical student well-being that targets the individual and the broader medical education ecology and (2) examine exemplars from the learning environment to understand the conditions which may support well-being in medical education settings. The first article introduces well-being frameworks grounded in Self-Determination Theory and community psychology. These frameworks are then utilized in two separate studies exploring medical students’ experiences in longitudinal learning environments. The first study used focus groups to explore student experiences in a longitudinal integrated clerkship and the second used focus groups to explore student leaders’ experiences with a student-run free clinic. Findings indicate that long-term learning experiences promote educational continuity, or connection among learning experiences, with patients and faculty. Continuity experiences with faculty facilitate trusting workplace relationships, promote autonomy support, and create opportunities for positive, formative feedback. Continuity with patients provides students the opportunity for high-quality learning and competency supportive feedback. Additionally, longitudinal learning experiences with vulnerable patients can affirm one’s value to others and promote a sense of mattering. In all, the two studies find that longitudinal, clinical experiences appear to support the student well-being through need supportive conditions that foster a sense of purpose and meaning through service to others.
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    Actual and perceived ideal practices of school psychologists: a regional and state-level comparison of role discrepancies to the national association of school psychologists practice model
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Batt-Rawden, Ashley P.; Burnham, Joy J.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Discrepancies between recommended and actual practices of school psychologists have plagued the field for decades. Previous studies have examined and identified differences in school psychology practices based upon geographical location within the United States as well as between community settings (e.g., rural, urban). The present study sought to fill a gap in the literature (Hosp & Reschly, 2002) by examining the actual and perceived needed practices of school psychologists in the East South Central (ESC) census division of the United States and compare those practices to the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) Practice Model (NASP, 2020c). Sixty-five school psychologists from the ESC division completed an adapted and reproduced version of the NASP Membership Survey (Walcott & Hyson, 2018) measuring a number of demographic variables as well as their engagement in a variety of school psychologist activities and services using a 7-point Likert-scale. Participants rated their actual practice during the most recently completed school year and rated the level of engagement in those same practices they thought was needed to best serve students in their district during a typical school year. Results indicated that as a whole, school psychologists in the ESC division do not engage in a comprehensive service delivery model as recommended by NASP. Rather, their perceived need for services was more closely aligned to the NASP Practice Model (NASP, 2020c). State-level comparisons indicated that school psychologists in Alabama practice under a traditional gatekeeper of special education model (Merrell et al., 2006) compared to their counterparts in Kentucky and Tennessee. School psychologists in Kentucky reported more engagement in mental-health related services than participants from other states. Community-level comparisons indicated that school psychologists practicing in urban settings are more engaged in a comprehensive service delivery model than those practicing in rural or suburban areas. No specific practices were identified as more needed than others by school psychologists in rural settings. Implications for future research include analysis of organizational factors contributing to discrepancies with implications for practice related to advocacy efforts.
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    A factor analysis of faculty members perceptions on lgb affirmative counselor training in clinical mental health and other counseling programs
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020-12) Brooks, Danyelle; Houser, Rick; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    This study explores Clinical Mental Health Counseling (CMHC) and other counselingfaculty members’ perceived efforts to prepare their students to work with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) clients using the Affirmative Training Inventory—Faculty Version (ATI-F). It is imperative to study affirmative training due to the impact it may have on LGB individuals seeking therapy. With more informed affirmative LGB training for counselors, we can expect to see more adventitious counseling for the LGB community. Faculty members were randomly selected from a list of 297 master’s counseling programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) were contacted through electronic request to participate in this study. Demographics were collected, and the faculty version (ATI-F) was utilized to explore the level of LGB affirmative training that occurred in clinical training programs and faculty members’ beliefs about the role of LGB affirmative training in clinical mental health programs.
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    Cultural effect on dispositional and intergroup empathy: comparison of iranians, americans, and bicultural iranians
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020-07) Yaghoubi Jami, Parvaneh; Walker, David Ian; Thoma, Stephen J.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Decades of research makes clear that people’s cultural background and group identity make a substantial impact on their empathic responsiveness. Our current understanding of empathic perceptions and reactions in a group of people, called biculturals, is limited. The majority of the research is correlational focusing on the connection between a set of limited factors and empathy. Moreover, there is growing evidence showing that being “bicultural” is more than having a set of correlational factors. This study argues that the concept of “bicultural” should be addressed as a naturalistic phenomenon requiring naturalistic experiments to have a more comprehensive understanding of the underlying factors. Accordingly, researching on psychological concepts such as empathy among biculturals would be a naturalistic experiment that allows researchers to test different theories regarding the studied phenomenon. This study used a mixed-method research design approach with a greater emphasis on quantitative strands. To address the purpose of this study, participants’ dispositional empathy as well as cultural orientation and sensitivity toward other cultures was measured through self-reported questionnaires. Drawing from the existing studies on the interplay between culture and empathy (e.g., Cheon et al., 2011; Yoon, 2014), participants’ empathic reactions toward observing an individual in painful and non-painful situations from ingroup and outgroup cultures was also explored. Additionally, this study explored how Americans and Iranians, two nations that have been represented as threat by their respective governments, viewed each other with a particular focus on the most dramatic incidents in the political relationships between these countries (Shahghasemi, 2017). Findings from the present study suggest that cultural orientation significantly affects empathic responsiveness. However, the relationship is dependent on the component of culture as well as on different components of empathy in different settings. Moreover, unlike their government and previous studies (Gerges, 1997), both nations had a positive viewpoint about each other and did not perceive each other as enemies. There was no sign of schadenfreude, the opposite of empathy (Cikara, Bruneau & Saxe, 2011), as all participants believed the two incidents should have not happened and they tried to be empathic toward observing other people in pain regardless of the person’s nationality. It seems the new generations in both populations, are developing their own viewpoint in which they try not to mirror the image created by their government (Johnston Conover, Mingst, & Sigelman, 1980).
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    A Need-Press Comparison of Australian and United States College Groups
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 1970) Lewis, Ruth Benella; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    The purpose of the study was to conduct a cross-cultural comparison of students and environments in colleges and universities of the United States and the University of Adelaide, South Australia. As a result of a Fulbright-Hayes research grant, it was possible to gather data for this study in Adelaide, from August, 1966, to September, 1967.
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    Developing the resilience scale for college students (RSCS)
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020) Shannon, Takesha; McDaniel, Sara; Choi, Youn-Jeng; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    College students face numerous stressors that have the potential to impair their ability to sustain effort towards their academic goals. Determining the external and internal factors that contribute to the academic persistence of undergraduate college students is imperative. Resilience, the ability to bounce back after significant challenges, setbacks, or adversity, may be an important factor in academic success. The study of resilience spans decades (Masten, 2001); however, not many studies have focused on determining the factors that make up resilience in undergraduate college students. Instruments have been developed to measure resilience, but there is not one that is widely accepted to assess resilience in undergraduate college students. A pilot study was conducted to inform the current study. This study seeks to develop a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring resilience in undergraduate college students. Keywords: academic persistence, resilience, academic stress, undergraduate