ItemThe Development of an Evaluative Scorecard for Elementary School Physical Education Programs(University of Alabama Libraries, 1975) Wilder, Milton Russell; Baughmna, Willis J.; Hamner, Tommie; Watkins, Angeline; Clipson, William F.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa ItemMapping De/Territorializing Literary Encounters in ELA Classroom Assemblages(University of Alabama Libraries, 2020) Murray, Elizabeth Anne Taylor; Spector, Karen; University of Alabama TuscaloosaBuilding from two years of data production, this study engages in a DeleuzoGuattarian-inspired exploration of de/territorializing learning encounters with literature that materialize secondary English Language Arts (ELA) classrooms as rhizomatic assemblages. Thinking with Deleuze and Guattari and other poststructural scholars, learning here entails becoming different and signals shifts in the always entangled ethical, epistemological, and ontological relations of the world. My experience teaching middle school ELA in the rural South offers one entry point for this inquiry and it spreads out to other nodes, including three schools and four ELA classrooms. Data production included participant observation, field notes, audio/video recordings, artifact collection, and informal discussions with co-participants. Engaging with these data, I attempted to decenter traditional hegemonic binaries and coding categories while remaining hospitable to the uncertainty of becoming otherwise in the ongoing processes of the assemblages I was inquiring with (even as I was part of them). Working from the middle, I mapped classroom encounters as they unfolded producing shifting questionings, movements, and intensities, as well as blind spots of stagnations. In chapter four I offer these maps through data narratives and interludes of de/territorializing flows from subsequent thinking with the encounters. Data discussed here circulate through encounters with literature including Bradbury’s “A Sound of Thunder” (1952), Harry Potter (Rowling, 1998), Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird (1960), The Civil Rights Movement, poetry, and Golding’s Lord of the Flies (1954). What was produced through these engagements demonstrates how aesthetic readings (Rosenblatt, 1938/1995) and literature as machine (Deleuze, 1994a) carry the force for affirmative change as they disrupt “habits of inattention” (Boler, 1999, p. 16) and produce “wide-awakeness” (Greene, 1978). Reading encounters like these cannot be prescribed, but certain orientations toward literary study seem to open classroom assemblages to more equitable futures: leaning into difficult topics, welcoming artfulness, affect, and emotion, and becoming more comfortable with uncertainty. Keywords: aesthetic/efferent reading, affect, affective-material-discursive, assemblages, classroom assemblage, Deleuze, DeleuzoGuattarian, desire, deterritorialization, difficult knowledge, ELA, Emmett Till, encounter, intensities, learning, literary encounter, literature, pedagogy, poetry, positive difference, reterritorialization, rhizoanalysis, rhizome, Rosenblatt, secondary English, subjectivity/identity, territory, thinking, To Kill a Mockingbird, virtue, wide-awakeness ItemMiddle School Mathematics Teachers Using Culturally Relevant Pedagogy to Improve Learning for Historically Marginalized Students(University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Jackson, Carol; Johnson, Latrise P.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaDeveloping characteristics of culturally responsive teaching in mathematics is a complex endeavor. Although the field of research on culturally relevant pedagogy and culturally responsive teaching in mathematics is vast, few studies have specifically addressed the transformation of mathematics teachers as they strive to implement culturally relevant pedagogical practices to improve learning for historically marginalized students. Grounded in culturally relevant pedagogy, culturally responsive teaching, and culturally responsive mathematics teaching, this research study was designed to capture the experiences and instructional practices, through narrative inquiry, of five middle school mathematics teachers as they move towards integrating culturally relevant pedagogical practices into their classroom instruction. This study also aimed to understand teachers' perception of how professional development opportunities influence their teaching practices. Data were collected from multiple sources, namely, semi-structured interviews, member check, and relevant school districts' documents pertaining to equitable educational practices. I also maintained a personal research journal. The key findings from this study indicate that emerging culturally relevant and responsive teachers 1) set high expectations for their students to promote academic growth and development, and 2) desire to have meaningful and ongoing professional development opportunities that connects content knowledge with cultural knowledge. Some findings were consistent with the literature on culturally relevant pedagogy tenets and the dimensions of culturally responsive teaching. Implications and recommendations are provided in an effort to strengthen teachers' practices and increase academic mathematics achievement and success for all students. ItemAlabama public school expenditures as correlates of student academic achievement(University of Alabama Libraries, 1996) Roper, David Middleton; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa ItemUsing Professional Learning Communities to Support Reformed Teaching Practices in Preservice Secondary Science(University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Tawbush, Rachael; Sunal, Dennis W.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThis mixed methods study investigated how professional learning communities could support reformed teaching practices in the secondary science classroom. To assist preservice teachers with implementing these practices in the classroom, teachers must have a space for metacognitive reflection on their teaching practices (Darling-Hammond, 2006). Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) were utilized as a teacher reflection space in the present study. A PLC model, developed by the National Science Foundation Developing Leaders in Science Teaching (LIST) Noyce Track 2 program (Award #1660557), was used. PLC meetings were directed and guided by the preservice teacher. The LIST Collaborative PLC model consisted of four members: (a) an education specialist, (b) a university content specialist, (c) a secondary science cooperating teacher, and (d) a preservice secondary science teacher. Study participants included three preservice secondary science teachers receiving PLC support (experimental group) and three preservice secondary science teachers with no PLC support (control group). Data were collected by a pre- and post-semistructured interview, two classroom observations immediately followed by a debriefing session, two PLC meetings for the experimental group, and a pre- and post-Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI) survey. The Reformed Teacher Observation Protocol (RTOP), inquiry rate form, and Student Engagement Rate (SER) forms were used to collect data during classroom observations. Quantitative data were determined not statistically significant using Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon signed rank tests, lending more credence to those findings. Findings indicated (a) preservice teachers’ definition of reformed teaching methods shifted across the study from “anything but direct instruction” to “student-centered teaching methods”; (b) hypothetically, participant mindset and buy-in were directly related to the amount of reformed teaching practices implemented in the classroom; (c) data revealed a lack of perceived support from Clinical Master Teachers (CMTs) and a valued, much-needed level of support provided by the PLCs; and (d) classroom observations and debriefing sessions, PLCs (experimental group), and university support (control group) were perceived as most impactful in supporting reformed teaching practices. Further longitudinal research is recommended to validate positive relationships between teacher growth mindset and PLC support for using reformed teaching practices in the secondary classroom by preservice secondary science teachers. ItemKendred Spirits: an Autoethnographic Account of Composing Closeness Between Bars(University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Kidd, Briana Gilbert; Johnson, Latrise P.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThe purpose of this dissertation is to share an ongoing story of reflection, Love, and growth as acts of creative resistance. Since 2013, my life has been animated by Love for secondary students whose stories continue to shape every aspect of my own. As the pages of this study illustrate, my Spirit has borne witness to the life and literacies of one particular student, Kentrelle Ty'Carter Washington, whose soul—whose story—I consider permanently fused with mine. Though Kentrelle and I are separated by systems and circumstances that would have his story—his humanity, his body, his spirit—and our access to one another erased, our ongoing relationship allows us to resist this erasure as we share, analyze, and expand our own and one another’s embodied literacies through writing. Together, our humanity—both Kentrelle’s and mine—becomes more urgent. Together, we compose closeness. Together, we write ourselves into one another’s worlds. Together, we resist. With/in a critical autoethnographic ontomethodology, the author uses bricolage and storytelling to illustrate and analyze how her relationship with a former student has expanded both of their racial, relational, and reflexive literacies. In other words, this is the ongoing story of the author’s expanding conceptualization of literacies as she and a former student have learned to compose closeness between bars. ItemMicropolitical literacy in an independent school: how newly-hired teachers experience the micropolitical context of an unfamiliar educational environment(University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Sullivan, Hannah; Yazan, Bedrettin; Johnson, Latrise P.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaWhen teachers are hired into a new educational organization, they must learn about the particular expectations and values of the school in order to find their place and be deemed an effective teacher within the local professional environment. As teachers spend time in the new organizational, or micropolitical, context, they learn how to decipher it and react accordingly in pursuit of their interests (Ball, 1987; Kelchtermans & Ballet, 2002a, 2002b). Unfortunately, teachers are often unaware of micropolitial factors that ultimately affect their effectiveness, perceived fit, and success at a school. Though each teacher brings their own set of background experiences and interests to a school, the school as an organization has norms, power structures, and established stakeholders that dictate how each teacher can pursue their interests. This study explored how newly-hired teachers in an independent school navigated the organization of the school and how they, as a result, saw themselves in relation to the organization. Micropolitical theory helped frame the organizational context in terms of the content teachers were learning and negotiating. Furthermore, micropolitical learning was used as a lens to discuss micropolitical interests, obstacles, and strategies towards achieving interests. Findings show how teachers’ backgrounds were related to their micropolitical learning and strategies. Teachers found mentors who were both close in proximity and new hires themselves most helpful. Additionally, teachers used routine and student feedback to gage their fit within the school. Finally, when considering fit and belonging, it was evident that teachers made decisions about what was or was not worth sacrificing. Based on the findings, I have offered suggestions for teacher induction, teacher education, and future research. ItemExamining how middle grade students develop mathematical learning opportunities and collectively engage in small groups: a three article dissertation(University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) Campbell, Tye; Zelkowski, Jeremy; University of Alabama TuscaloosaCollaborative learning, a classroom structure wherein students work with peers to co-construct knowledge, can lead to higher achievement and more equitable opportunities to learn in comparison to traditional instruction. However, there is much to learn regarding the conditions by which collaboration supports positive outcomes. In this dissertation, I contribute to the growing body of research determining the conditions of collaborative learning by examining (a) how researchers analyze discourse in the context of mathematical group problem-solving, (b) how middle grade students develop learning opportunities through conflict, and (c) how middle grade students collectively engage to solve complex tasks. The first article is a systematic review illustrating how scholars analyze discourse in the context of mathematical group problem-solving. I synthesized literature according to six categories: affective experiences, group coordination, individual or group success, collective understanding, language and content, and interventions or specific content. Article 1 provided an analytic basis for the empirical analyses. For Article 2 and Article 3, 77 middle grade students across two schools were placed into groups to work collaboratively on complex mathematical tasks. In Article 2, I examined instances of group conflict to determine how learners resolved conflict in ways that promoted or inhibited learning opportunities. I constructed 17 themes of promotive discourse practices and six themes of limiting discourse practices. These themes suggest implications for teaching students how to communicate in collaborative environments. In Article 3, I constructed a theoretical frame for determining how middle grade groups collectively engage to solve complex tasks. I theorized that students’ intellectual positionings intersected their individual engagement to inform collective engagement structures. I also categorized the collective engagement structures exhibited by the middle grade sample. These structures included: Follow The Leader, Do What I Say, Let’s Compete, Let’s Work Hard And Figure This Out, We’re Really Into This, Let’s Have Fun, Let’s Get The Job Done, and Every Person For Themselves. The theoretical and empirical contributions of Article 3 inform researchers and practitioners towards understanding the collaborative processes that result from collaborative learning. Together, this three-article dissertation creates stimulus for discussion and future inquiry towards improving collaborative approaches to instruction. ItemMy language learning, using, and researching stories: critical autoethnography of socialization(University of Alabama Libraries, 2020-12) Keles, Ufuk; Mantero, Miguel MM; Yazan, Bedrettin BY; University of Alabama TuscaloosaIn this three-paper dissertation, I first reviewed recently published autoethnographic works in applied linguistics. Then, drawing on the subsections of socialization theory, I narrated my stories related to learning, using, and teaching English alongside becoming an educational researcher. In the first paper, I conducted a state-of-the-art review of autoethnographies published in peer-reviewed applied linguistics journals between 2010 and 2020. I examined the ways researchers used autoethnography as a qualitative methodology to discuss their language-related experiences. I aimed to answer how recent autoethnographic studies used autoethnography as a new qualitative research methodology in applied linguistics. Overall, the findings showed that a great majority of the researchers employed autoethnography as ‘an umbrella term’ without opting for a specific type of autoethnography. Their motivation to use autoethnography pertained mostly to their choice of using personal data rather than experimenting on the methodological affordances of autoethnography. They provided little or no justification about their methodological choices as to what affordances autoethnography offered them that other methodologies did not. The second paper explores my language learning, using, and teaching experiences via critical autoethnography of socialization. Collecting personal data from my memory and supplementary sources, I employed a chronicling the past strategy in my data analysis. The findings showed that many complex factors involved in my socialization processes such as the attitudes of other members, more specifically those of old(er)timers; individual, institutional, and national desires; multi-level level language ideologies; my previous experiences and my future aspirations. Framed as ‘mystory,’ the third paper explored my transnational academic discourse socialization centering on my higher education experiences in Turkey and in the US. I used memory-based self-reflections and multimodal data regarding my university life. I analyzed these data using a chronicling the past strategy. The findings showed that my transnational socialization was triggered and fueled by my desire to break away from nation-state ideologies and to learn about other cultures and peoples. On the whole, my transnational socialization was a complex mental/emotional/intellectual process manifested in translanguaging practices in hybrid, fluid, and in-between spaces. ItemTeacher candidates’ development of pedagogical design capacity for inquiry-based concept lessons(University of Alabama Libraries, 2020-12) Odebiyi, Oluseyi Matthew; Sunal, Cynthia S.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThis study explores and describes the developmental processes of pedagogical design capacities (PDC) for lessons and generates hypotheses to characterize PDC for inquiry-oriented lessons of a case sample of elementary (K-6) education teacher candidates (hereafter, candidates) as they engaged in design tasks in a social studies methods course within a teacher education program. The results indicated candidates had inherent, yet varied, pedagogical content design strategies fitting their perception of lesson design as they attended the social studies methods course where they engaged in design tasks. Candidates showed improvement in their development and implementation of PDC for inquiry-oriented concept lessons when engaged in lesson designs based on reform ideas. Candidates’ lesson design dispositions, lesson design practices, and the dynamics of interactions with specific personal, curricular and contextual resource input dimensions, however, determined their design actions and effected the degree of their competence to construct reformed-based lessons. Three design actions were observed in candidates’ PDC for inquiry-oriented lessons: optimizing, acceding or complying, and reframing design actions. The study hypothesized that changing candidates’ prior perceived lesson design efficacy, sustaining strategic scaffolding and modeling of reformed lessons, targeting support for noticing and setting explicit expectations on key reformed lessons design elements, and ongoing professional development on how to methodically mobilize resources will influence their development and implementation of PDC for inquiry-oriented lessons as they engage in design tasks. Further hypotheses-testing study is warranted to validate these hypotheses. ItemAn Analysis of Certain Fine Arts High Schools in the United States Including the Alabama School of Fine Arts(University of Alabama Libraries, 1976) Wood, Roy Lavon; University of Alabama TuscaloosaOne of the important educational areas that has been seriously neglected in the secondary schools of Alabama is the area of the Fine Arts. This includes music, drama, dance, and visual arts, as well as peripheral subjects such as the technical aspects of dramatic productions, and audiovisual technology. Most of the students desiring these disciplines, particularly dance and visual art, have had to find instruction outside of the public schools. The curricula of a few of the larger high schools include limited training in a number of these subjects, but such opportunities constitute exceptions to the majority of secondary situations across the state. ItemEffects of a task-based methods/practicum sequence on secondary mathematical knowledge for teaching(University of Alabama Libraries, 2020) Glaze, Patricia Edge; Zelkowski, Jeremy; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThere has been a call for reform in the teaching and learning of mathematics that requires moving away from passive student learning and memorization to active participation and exploration; however, mathematics teaching in American classrooms remains largely traditional. A methods/practicum sequence provides a unique opportunity to actively instill an understanding of tasks that promote the mathematical practices. Moreover, planning and implementing worthwhile mathematical tasks requires and demonstrates mathematical knowledge for teaching. The mixed-methods case study was designed to determine the effects of a task-based methods/practicum sequence on secondary mathematics teacher candidates’ ability to plan for and enact worthwhile mathematical tasks. The treatment was guided by Implementing Standards-Based Mathematics Instruction: A Casebook for Professional Development, authored by the leading researchers on mathematical instructional tasks. The Instructional Quality Assessment (IQA) was used to assess the potential and implemented cognitive demand of tasks used for instruction. The Mathematical Classroom Observation Protocol for Practices (MCOP²) was used to assess the mathematical practices that were observed during the same instruction. Participant reflections and interactions provided qualitative data to enhance the quantitative findings. It was found that scores on both assessments increased significantly from the beginning to the end of the semester. Moreover, the participants expressed greater awareness of tasks and teaching strategies that maintain their cognitive demand. These findings add to what is known about secondary mathematics teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching as well as establish a relationship between the IQA and MCOP² as it pertains to the study. ItemPreservice teachers' stories from the literacy landscape: engaging adolescent readers & negotiating the professional knowledge landscape(University of Alabama Libraries, 2019) Banks, Pamela A.; Wilson, Elizabeth; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThis narrative inquiry sought to report and explore the lived experiences of four preservice teachers who took part in a teacher education program at a public university in the southeastern United States. Specifically, this study examined participants’ lived experiences as they related to gaining personal practical knowledge required to be teachers of reading in their specific content-areas. Of these participants, two were social science teachers, one was music, and one was English language arts. All participants took part in an undergraduate literacy course as part of their required Teacher Education Program coursework. The results of this study expand the current literature concerning preservice teachers’ educational needs in undergraduate content literacy courses and provide insight into their perceptions about the goals and realities of teaching literacy skills in their content-areas. Thematic narrative analysis was used to discern themes in the participants’ interviews. From two in-person interviews per participant and one focus group interview conducted via Zoom, three themes emerged from this inquiry: predominant test-prep pedagogy, discrepancies between literacy course experience and student teaching, and feelings of deficiency related to self-efficacy. Adopting Clandinin and Connelly’s (1995) conception of the professional knowledge landscape of schools, this study utilized qualitative methods of interviewing, transcription, and thematic narrative analysis to draw attention to the ways preservice teachers negotiated tensions within their professional knowledge landscape as they worked to engage adolescents in reading and as they gained personal practical knowledge of literacy instruction. ItemA case study of one school’s reform efforts to improve math instruction through coordinated professional development(University of Alabama Libraries, 2019) Sarrell, Astin Mobley; Zelkowski, Jeremy; University of Alabama TuscaloosaFor the past three decades, mathematics research has indicated the need for high quality mathematics instruction that includes both ambitious and equitable practices, as well as continuous, innovative learning opportunities for educators. While research connects effective professional development to improved instructional practices, there is still a need for additional research on what this professional development should entail for elementary mathematics classrooms. This study sought to determine how one school coordinates its professional development efforts, with respect to fourth grade, in mathematics instruction. The qualitative case study gathered information and experiences from six participants. The study took place at a rural, pre- K through fourth grade school in east Alabama. The study collected data on the specific opportunities afforded to teachers throughout one semester of focused efforts on mathematics instruction and on the impact of the efforts had on classroom instructional practices. All professional development efforts centered on the use of mathematical number talks within the elementary classroom setting. Analysis of the data revealed that while the development of a strong focus and overall goal for professional development opportunities is necessary, it is also important to ensure that all efforts align in order to meet the overall goal. Data also showed the importance of developing a strong teacher subsystem, complete with professional development opportunities, instructional coaching, teacher collaboration, and teacher networks. The results indicate that number talks implemented in elementary mathematics classrooms can have positive impacts on instructional practices. The results also indicate that development and implementation of a teacher subsystem impacts the effectiveness of professional development reform efforts. Findings from this study can be used by administrators, instructional coaches, or those involved with coordinating professional development efforts. Future research could apply the same organizational structure over a longer period of time with a larger number of participants. Additional research on a larger scale is needed to further determine the impact of number talk implementation on teachers’ instructional practices. ItemAuthentic assessment and individual student achievement in the choral classroom: a case study(University of Alabama Libraries, 2019) Hearn, Elizabeth R.; Latimer, Marvin E.; Bannerman, Julie K.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaAssessment in the large choral ensemble music classroom continues to be a widely examined topic among both practicing music educators and music education scholars. This instrumental case study (Stake, 1995) explored the lived experiences with assessment practices as reported by high school choir students and the choir teacher. The research site was a large, suburban, high school choral program in the Southeast United States. Research questions focused on participants’ beliefs about assessment, factors that influenced those beliefs such as the role of choir in the school curriculum and culture, and the challenges of assessing choral music students. Data generation methods included observational field notes, semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and collection of artifacts. Findings revealed that both musical and nonmusical assessment practices were used to evaluate student learning including participation and attendance-based assessments, a theory curriculum, and performance assessments. Students perceived all assessment practices, musical and nonmusical, to be in support of what they viewed as the primary goal of the choral program, ensemble achievement. That choir participation was positively perceived to be more like an activity and less like an academic class appeared to be a core belief at ATHS, and one that should be further examined in assessment discussions in music education. Item“It’s not just some place anymore”: an exploration of the lived experiences of preservice teachers engaged in place-based read alouds(University of Alabama Libraries, 2019) Evans, Dana Michelle; Coleman, Julianne; University of Alabama TuscaloosaPlace-based instructional practices can be applied to literacy instructional techniques through reading aloud in local community places. In today’s rapidly changing informational landscapes, communication and comprehension require more than the literacy skills of reading and writing proficiency. In order to support changing forms of communication and text, new approaches that support social literacy skills and emphasize meaning-making should be presented to preservice teachers in consideration of their developing literacy pedagogy. This study combines literacy instructional practices with place-based approaches to explore local historic sites in the community through reading aloud in literacy places. The goal of this study was to explore the lived experiences of 17 preservice teachers as they engaged in literacy practices using place-based instructional techniques. Qualitative data were collected through student journal entries, audio recordings of student conversations, student work samples, individual interviews, and focus groups. The findings of the study show discursive opportunities within literacy places, which allowed for participants to develop interpersonal connections. Place-based literacy practices provided altered future interactions with local places for participants, which led to a desire to share their lived experiences with others. Preservice teachers utilized emotional text connections and visualization to navigate children’s literature within literacy places. Findings from this study can be used by literacy teachers, teacher educators, and preservice teachers to inform instruction. ItemThe influence of text conditions on fourth graders’ comprehension of life science text(University of Alabama Libraries, 2019) Kaczor, Crystal Diana; Coleman, Julianne M.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThe purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the extent to which text condition influences reading comprehension of life science text for 72 4th grade students and to understand their meaning making of each text condition. A three-paragraph passage on the circulatory system was presented in three different diagram types/conditions. All conditions were compared to a text-only control condition. A prior-knowledge task was used in order to identify pre-existing differences in students’ background knowledge of the circulatory system and to then account for those differences statistically during data analysis. Following the prior knowledge task, a reading of one of the text conditions was completed followed by a comprehension post-test on the circulatory system. Following the post-test, a sub-group (n=15) of the original sample completed a verbal protocol to qualitatively assess meaning making from each text condition. The findings of this study could potentially benefit teachers, teacher educators, and researchers alike, as reading across the disciplines presents unique challenges given the demands that informational texts present for young readers. ItemThe influences of ESL and content teachers' collaboration on teachers' learning and ESL students' participation: a case study of middle school mainstream classrooms(University of Alabama Libraries, 2019) Giles, Amanda Kathryn; Mantero, Miguel; Yazan, Bedrettin; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThis study explored how ESL and content teachers’ collaboration influenced content teachers’ learning to plan for and teach ESL students in mainstream content classrooms and ESL students’ participation during the collaborative teaching sessions. This study is theoretically based on sociocultural learning notions that assume that teacher learning is a dynamic and complex process that occurs through teachers’ professional interactions (Johnson & Golombek, 2016) in communities of practice (Lave & Wenger, 1991). This study uses positioning theory (Davies & Harré, 1990; Harré & Moghaddam, 2003; Harré & van Langenhove, 1999) as its theoretical lens, which affords the opportunity to investigate how reflexive and interactive positionings (Davies & Harré, 1990) shape the possibilities for content teachers’ learning to plan for and teach ESL students and for ESL students’ participation during the collaborative teaching sessions in mainstream content classrooms. Employing a case study research design, this study assumes the researcher’s dual participatory role as the ESL teacher. In doing so, I collaborated with four content teachers separately to show how collaboration influenced content teachers’ learning to plan for and teach ESL students and ESL students’ participation in the mainstream content classrooms. Data collection included qualitative methods, such as semi-structured interviews, collaborative planning sessions, lesson planning artifacts, collaborative teaching sessions, collaborative viewing sessions, reflective journals, ESL students’ work samples, and field notes. Data analysis relied on Saldaña’s (2013) coding techniques and drew on Davies & Harré’s (1990) reflexive and interactive positionings. This study found that ESL and content teachers’ collaboration influenced the content teachers’ learning to plan and teach ESL students because collaboration became a space for teachers to learn by negotiating lesson designs, teaching roles, language strategies, assessment techniques, and the ESL teacher’s role in the mainstream content classrooms. This study also found that collaboration influenced ESL students’ participation by creating space for both the ESL teacher’s increased role and the content teacher’s renewed student positionings. In addition, it shed light on how teachers’ collaborative planning and teaching acts enhanced or constrained ESL students’ participation. In light of the findings, the study calls for increased collaborative efforts between ESL and content teachers. ItemThe implications of using lesson study as a professional development model to support graphical literacy in second grade(University of Alabama Libraries, 2019) Morrison, Karen Michelle; Coleman, Julianne M.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThis study sought to determine the implications of using lesson study as a professional development model to support graphical literacy in second grade students. This mixed methods embedded study gathered information from 3- second grade teachers and 50- second grade students in a rural public school in Central Alabama. The study collected data using a modified version of the Classroom Learning Environment Survey, interviews, observations, transcriptions and debriefing notes. Results from the CLES surveys indicated some positive results for teachers and students in learning about science and the world. Results from the interviews, observations, transcriptions and debriefing notes indicated that the use of lesson study supported teacher use of interactive read aloud with nonfiction text graphics. Teachers received three days of professional development during the summer for lesson study, graphical literacy and interactive read aloud instruction. Students were engaged in whole and small group instructional activities. Teacher educators, in-service teachers, and pre-service teachers can use findings from this study to inform practice. Future research should apply lesson study and nonfiction graphical literacy instruction with elementary classrooms. ItemElementary mathematics instructional coaches: qualities of qualified mathematics specialists(University of Alabama Libraries, 2019) Nalu, Nicolette; Sunal, Cynthia S.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThis mixed methods study analyzed the content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, and leadership knowledge and skills of elementary mathematics specialists (EMSs); in addition, the study examined EMSs’ ability to select and implement a high-quality mathematical task.