Item25(OH)D Status of Elite Athletes with Spinal Cord Injury Relative to Lifestyle Factors(MDPI, 2016) Pritchett, Kelly; Pritchett, Robert; Ogan, Dana; Bishop, Phil; Broad, Elizabeth; LaCroix, Melissa; Central Washington University; University of Alabama TuscaloosaBackground: Due to the potential negative impact of low Vitamin D status on performance-related factors and the higher risk of low Vitamin D status in Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) population, research is warranted to determine whether elite athletes with SCI have sufficient 25(OH)D levels. The purposes of this study were to examine: (1) the seasonal proportion of vitamin D insufficiency among elite athletes with SCI; and (2) to determine whether lifestyle factors, SCI lesion level, and muscle performance/function are related to vitamin D status in athletes with SCI. Methods: Thirty-nine members of the Canadian Wheelchair Sports Association, and the US Olympic Committee Paralympic program from outdoor and indoor sports were recruited for this study. Dietary and lifestyle factors, and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were assessed during the autumn (October) and winter (February/March). An independent t-test was used to assess differences in 25(OH)D status among seasons, and indoor and outdoor sports in the autumn and winter, respectively. Results: Mean +/- SD serum 25(OH)D concentration was 69.6 +/- 19.7 nmol/L (range from 30 to 107.3 nmol/L) and 67.4 +/- 25.5 nmol/L (range from 20 to 117.3 nmol/L) in the autumn and winter, respectively. In the autumn, 15.4% of participants were considered vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) whereas 51.3% had 25(OH)D concentrations that would be considered insufficient (< 80 nmol/L). In the winter, 15.4% were deficient while 41% of all participants were considered vitamin D insufficient. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of elite athletes with SCI have insufficient (41%-51%) and deficient (15.4%) 25(OH)D status in the autumn and winter. Furthermore, a seasonal decline in vitamin D status was not observed in the current study. ItemPioglitazone Improved Insulin Sensitivity and First Phase Insulin Secretion Among Obese and Lean People with Diabetes: A Multicenter Clamp Study(Springer, 2018) Qian, Xin; Wang, Hui; Yang, Gangyi; Gao, Zhengnan; Luo, Yong; Dong, Aimei; Zhang, Fang; Xu, Mingtong; Liu, Shiping; Yang, Xin; Chen, Yanyan; Li, Guangwei; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences - Peking Union Medical College; Fu Wai Hospital - CAMS; Chongqing Medical University; Peking University; Sun Yat Sen University; Central South University; University of Alabama TuscaloosaIntroduction: To investigate the effects of pioglitazone (PIO) on insulin resistance and first phase insulin secretion among obese and lean Chinese people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Sixty-eight drug-naive patients with T2DM were treated with PIO for 16 weeks. Before and after the treatment, insulin sensitivity was evaluated by the euglycemic hyper-insulinemic clamp test. Plasma insulin levels at 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 min during intravenous glucose tolerance test were determined to calculate the first phase insulin secretion and pancreatic beta-cell function. Circulating adiponectin levels were quantified. Results: In both the lean and the obese patients with T2DM, the reduction of HbA(1c) following the PIO treatment was more than 1% (P < 0.001) and glucose infusion rate, acute insulin response, glucose disposal index, and beta-cell glucose sensitivity increased significantly (P < 0.001). A multiple linear regression analysis showed that the improvements of first phase insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity were independently associated with the changes of HbA(1c), but the change of first phase insulin secretion exhibited a higher correlation coefficient (R-2 = 0.20, P = 0.001) than the change of insulin sensitivity did (R-2 = 0.07, P = 0.040). The PIO treatment led to a significant increase in adiponectin levels only in the obese group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A 16-week treatment of PIO significantly increased insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in the lean group as well as in the obese group among Chinese T2DM patients, demonstrating that both lean and obese diabetic adults would profit from PIO. ItemHabituation and individual variation in the endocrine stress response in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)(Elsevier, 2019) Houslay, T. M.; Earley, R. L.; Young, A. J.; Wilson, A. J.; University of Exeter; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThe vertebrate stress response enables individuals to react to and cope with environmental challenges. A crucial aspect of the stress response is the elevation of circulating glucocorticoids. However, continued activation of the stress response under repeated exposure to stressors can be damaging to fitness. Under certain circumstances it may therefore be adaptive to habituate to repeated exposures to a particular stressor by reducing the magnitude of any associated release of glucocorticoids. Here, we investigate whether Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) habituate to repeated exposure to a mild stressor, using a waterborne hormone sampling approach that has previously been shown to elicit a stress response in small fish. We also test for individual variation in the extent of habituation to this stressor. Concentrating on freely circulating cortisol, we found that the first exposure to the assay induced high cortisol release rates but that guppies tended to habituate quickly to subsequent exposures. There were consistent differences among individuals in their average cortisol release rate (after accounting for effects of variables such as body size) over repeated exposures. Our analyses did not find evidence of individual differences in habituation rate, although limitations in statistical power could account for this finding. We repeated the analysis for free 11-ketotestosterone, which can also respond to stressors, but found no obvious habituation pattern and no among-individual variation. We also present data on conjugated forms of both hormones, which were repeatable but did not show the expected time-lagged habituation effect. We discuss consistent individual differences around the general pattern of habituation in the flexible stress response, and highlight the potential for individual variation in habituation to facilitate selection against the deleterious effects of chronic stress. ItemValidation of Sensor-Based Food Intake Detection by Multicamera Video Observation in an Unconstrained Environment(MDPI, 2019) Farooq, Muhammad; Doulah, Abul; Parton, Jason; McCrory, Megan A.; Higgins, Janine A.; Sazonov, Edward; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; Boston University; University of Colorado Anschutz Medical CampusVideo observations have been widely used for providing ground truth for wearable systems for monitoring food intake in controlled laboratory conditions; however, video observation requires participants be confined to a defined space. The purpose of this analysis was to test an alternative approach for establishing activity types and food intake bouts in a relatively unconstrained environment. The accuracy of a wearable system for assessing food intake was compared with that from video observation, and inter-rater reliability of annotation was also evaluated. Forty participants were enrolled. Multiple participants were simultaneously monitored in a 4-bedroom apartment using six cameras for three days each. Participants could leave the apartment overnight and for short periods of time during the day, during which time monitoring did not take place. A wearable system (Automatic Ingestion Monitor, AIM) was used to detect and monitor participants' food intake at a resolution of 30 s using a neural network classifier. Two different food intake detection models were tested, one trained on the data from an earlier study and the other on current study data using leave-one-out cross validation. Three trained human raters annotated the videos for major activities of daily living including eating, drinking, resting, walking, and talking. They further annotated individual bites and chewing bouts for each food intake bout. Results for inter-rater reliability showed that, for activity annotation, the raters achieved an average (+/- standard deviation (STD)) kappa value of 0.74 (+/- 0.02) and for food intake annotation the average kappa (Light's kappa) of 0.82 (+/- 0.04). Validity results showed that AIM food intake detection matched human video-annotated food intake with a kappa of 0.77 (+/- 0.10) and 0.78 (+/- 0.12) for activity annotation and for food intake bout annotation, respectively. Results of one-way ANOVA suggest that there are no statistically significant differences among the average eating duration estimated from raters' annotations and AIM predictions (p-value = 0.19). These results suggest that the AIM provides accuracy comparable to video observation and may be used to reliably detect food intake in multi-day observational studies. ItemPractical Hydration Solutions for Sports(MDPI, 2019) Belval, Luke N.; Hosokawa, Yuri; Casa, Douglas J.; Adams, William M.; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Baker, Lindsay B.; Burke, Louise; Cheuvront, Samuel; Chiampas, George; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Huggins, Robert A.; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Lee, Elaine C.; McDermott, Brendon P.; Miller, Kevin; Schlader, Zachary; Sims, Stacy; Stearns, Rebecca L.; Troyanos, Chris; Wingo, Jonathan; University of Connecticut; Waseda University; University of North Carolina; University of North Carolina Greensboro; Australian Institute of Sport; Brunel University; Arizona State University; Arizona State University-Downtown Phoenix; University of Arkansas Fayetteville; Central Michigan University; State University of New York (SUNY) Buffalo; University of Waikato; University of Alabama TuscaloosaPersonalized hydration strategies play a key role in optimizing the performance and safety of athletes during sporting activities. Clinicians should be aware of the many physiological, behavioral, logistical and psychological issues that determine both the athlete's fluid needs during sport and his/her opportunity to address them; these are often specific to the environment, the event and the individual athlete. In this paper we address the major considerations for assessing hydration status in athletes and practical solutions to overcome obstacles of a given sport. Based on these solutions, practitioners can better advise athletes to develop practices that optimize hydration for their sports. ItemDietary Relationship with 24 h Urinary Iodine Concentrations of Young Adults in the Mountain West Region of the United States(MDPI, 2020) Gostas, Demetre E.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Yoder, Hillary A.; Huffman, Ainsley E.; Johnson, Evan C.; University of Wyoming; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; University of UtahBackground: Iodine deficiency is not seen as a public health concern in the US. However certain subpopulations may be vulnerable due to inadequate dietary sources. The purpose of the present study was to determine the dietary habits that influence iodine status in young adult men and women, and to evaluate the relationship between iodine status and thyroid function. Methods: 111 participants (31.6 +/- 0.8 years, 173.2 +/- 1.0 cm, 74.9 +/- 1.7 kg) provided 24 h urine samples and completed an iodine-specific Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for assessment of urinary iodine content (UIC) as a marker of iodine status and habitual iodine intake, respectively. Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) concentration was evaluated as a marker of thyroid function. Spearman correlational and regression analysis were performed to analyze the associations between iodine intake and iodine status, and iodine status and thyroid function. Results: 50.4% of participants had a 24 h UIC < 100 mu g/L). Dairy (r = 0.391, p < 0.000) and egg intake (r = 0.192, p = 0.044) were the best predictors of UIC, accounting for 19.7% of the variance (p <= 0.0001). There was a significant correlation between UIC and serum TSH (r = 0.194, p < 0.05) but TSH did not vary by iodine status category (F = 1.087, p = 0.372). Discussion: Total dairy and egg intake were the primary predictors of estimated iodine intake, as well as UIC. Iodized salt use was not a significant predictor, raising questions about the reliability of iodized salt recall. These data will be useful in directing public health and clinical assessment efforts in the US and other countries. ItemDevelopment and Validation of an Objective, Passive Dietary Assessment Method for Estimating Food and Nutrient Intake in Households in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Study Protocol(Oxford University Press, 2020) Jobarteh, Modou L.; McCrory, Megan A.; Lo, Benny; Sun, Mingui; Sazonov, Edward; Anderson, Alex K.; Jia, Wenyan; Maitland, Kathryn; Qiu, Jianing; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Higgins, Janine A.; Baranowski, Tom; Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Frost, Gary; Imperial College London; Boston University; University of Pittsburgh; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; University of Georgia; University of Ghana; University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus; Baylor College of Medicine; United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)Malnutrition is a major concern in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), but the full extent of nutritional deficiencies remains unknown largely due to lack of accurate assessment methods. This study seeks to develop and validate an objective, passive method of estimating food and nutrient intake in households in Ghana and Uganda. Household members (including under-5s and adolescents) are assigned a wearable camera device to capture images of their food intake during waking hours. Using custom software, images captured are then used to estimate an individual's food and nutrient (i.e., protein, fat, carbohydrate, energy, and micronutrients) intake. Passive food image capture and assessment provides an objective measure of food and nutrient intake in real time, minimizing some of the limitations associated with self-reported dietary intake methods. Its use in LMIC could potentially increase the understanding of a population's nutritional status, and the contribution of household food intake to the malnutrition burden. This project is registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT03723460). ItemDefensive Venoms: Is Pain Sufficient for Predator Deterrence?(MDPI, 2020) Niermann, Crystal N.; Tate, Travis G.; Suto, Amber L.; Barajas, Rolando; White, Hope A.; Guswiler, Olivia D.; Secor, Stephen M.; Rowe, Ashlee H.; Rowe, Matthew P.; Sam Houston State University; Michigan State University; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; University of Oklahoma - NormanPain, though unpleasant, is adaptive in calling an animal's attention to potential tissue damage. A long list of animals representing diverse taxa possess venom-mediated, pain-inducing bites or stings that work by co-opting the pain-sensing pathways of potential enemies. Typically, such venoms include toxins that cause tissue damage or disrupt neuronal activity, rendering painful stings honest indicators of harm. But could pain alone be sufficient for deterring a hungry predator? Some venomologists have argued "no"; predators, in the absence of injury, would "see through" the bluff of a painful but otherwise benign sting or bite. Because most algogenic venoms are also toxic (although not vice versa), it has been difficult to disentangle the relative contributions of each component to predator deterrence. Southern grasshopper mice (Onychomys torridus) are voracious predators of arthropods, feeding on a diversity of scorpion species whose stings vary in painfulness, including painful Arizona bark scorpions (Centruroides sculpturatus) and essentially painless stripe-tailed scorpions (Paravaejovis spinigerus). Moreover, southern grasshopper mice have evolved resistance to the lethal toxins in bark scorpion venom, rendering a sting from these scorpions painful but harmless. Results from a series of laboratory experiments demonstrate that painful stings matter. Grasshopper mice preferred to prey on stripe-tailed scorpions rather than bark scorpions when both species could sting; the preference disappeared when each species had their stingers blocked. A painful sting therefore appears necessary for a scorpion to deter a hungry grasshopper mouse, but it may not always be sufficient: after first attacking and consuming a painless stripe-tailed scorpion, many grasshopper mice went on to attack, kill, and eat a bark scorpion even when the scorpion was capable of stinging. Defensive venoms that result in tissue damage or neurological dysfunction may, thus, be required to condition greater aversion than venoms causing pain alone. ItemReproducibility of Dietary Intake Measurement From Diet Diaries, Photographic Food Records, and a Novel Sensor Method(Frontiers, 2020) Fontana, Juan M.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Sazonov, Edward S.; McCrory, Megan A.; Graham Thomas, J.; McGrane, Kelli S.; Marden, Tyson; Higgins, Janine A.; Universidad Nacional Rio Cuarto; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET); University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus; Colorado School of Public Health; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; Boston University; Brown UniversityObjective:No data currently exist on the reproducibility of photographic food records compared to diet diaries, two commonly used methods to measure dietary intake. Our aim was to examine the reproducibility of diet diaries, photographic food records, and a novel electronic sensor, consisting of counts of chews and swallows using wearable sensors and video analysis, for estimating energy intake. Method:This was a retrospective analysis of data from a previous study, in which 30 participants (15 female), aged 29 +/- 12 y and having a BMI of 27.9 +/- 5.5, consumed three identical meals on different days. Four different methods were used to estimate total mass and energy intake on each day: (1) weighed food record; (2) photographic food record; (3) diet diary; and (4) novel mathematical model based on counts of chews and swallows (CCS models) obtained via the use of electronic sensors and video monitoring system. The study staff conducted weighed food records for all meals, took pre- and post-meal photographs, and ensured that diet diaries were completed by participants at the end of each meal. All methods were compared against the weighed food record, which was used as the reference method. Results:Reproducibility was significantly different between the diet diary and photographic food record for total energy intake (p= 0.004). The photographic record had greater reproducibility vs. the diet diary for all parameters measured. For total energy intake, the novel sensor method exhibited good reproducibility (repeatability coefficient (RC) of 59.9 (45.9, 70.4), which was better than that for the diet diary [RC = 79.6 (55.5, 103.3)] but not as repeatable as the photographic method [RC = 43.4 (32.1, 53.9)]. Conclusion:Photographic food records offer superior precision to the diet diary and, therefore, would be valuable for longitudinal studies with repeated measures of dietary intake. A novel electronic sensor also shows promise for the collection of longitudinal dietary intake data. ItemUrinary markers of hydration during 3-day water restriction and graded rehydration(Springer, 2020) Johnson, Evan C.; Huffman, Ainsley E.; Yoder, Hillary; Dolci, Alberto; Perrier, Erica T.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Armstrong, Lawrence E.; University of Wyoming; University of Utah; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; Danone NutriciaPurpose This investigation had three purposes: (a) to evaluate changes in hydration biomarkers in response to a graded rehydration intervention (GRHI) following 3 days of water restriction (WR), (b) assess within-day variation in urine concentrations, and (c) quantify the volume of fluid needed to return to euhydration as demonstrated by change inU(col). Methods 115 adult males and females were observed during 1 week of habitual fluid intake, 3 days of fluid restriction (1000 mL day(-1)), and a fourth day in which the sample was randomized into five different GRHI groups: no additional water, CON; additional 500 mL,G(+0.50); additional 1000 mL,G(+1.00); additional 1500 mL,G(+1.50); additional 2250 mL,G(+2.25). All urine was collected on 1 day of the baseline week, during the final 2 days of the WR, and during the day of GRHI, and evaluated for urine osmolality, color, and specific gravity. Results Following the GRHI, onlyG(+1.50)andG(+2.25)resulted in all urinary values being significantly different from CON. The mean volume of water increase was significantly greater for those whoseU(col)changed from > 4 to < 4 (+ 1435 +/- 812 mL) than those whoseU(col)remained >= 4 (+ 667 +/- 722 mL,p < 0.001). Conclusions An additional 500 mL of water is not sufficient, while approximately 1500 mL of additional water (for a total intake between 2990 and 3515 mL day(-1)) is required to return to a urine color associated with adequate water intake, following 3 days of WR. ItemWalking cadence (steps/min) and intensity in 41 to 60-year-old adults: the CADENCE-adults study(BMC, 2020) Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Ducharme, Scott W.; Aguiar, Elroy J.; Schuna, John M., Jr.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Moore, Christopher C.; Chase, Colleen J.; Gould, Zachary R.; Amalbert-Birriel, Marcos A.; Mora-Gonzalez, Jose; Chipkin, Stuart R.; Staudenmayer, John; University of North Carolina; University of North Carolina Charlotte; California State University Long Beach; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; Oregon State University; Syracuse University; University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; University of Massachusetts AmherstBackground In younger adults (i.e., those < 40 years of age) a walking cadence of 100 steps/min is a consistently supported threshold indicative of absolutely-defined moderate intensity ambulation (i.e., >= 3 metabolic equivalents; METs). Less is known about the cadence-intensity relationship in adults of middle-age. Purpose To establish heuristic (i.e., evidence-based, practical, rounded) cadence thresholds for absolutely-defined moderate (3 METs) and vigorous (6 METs) intensity in adults 41 to 60 years of age. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 80 healthy adults of middle-age (10 men and 10 women representing each 5-year age-group between 41 to 60 years; body mass index = 26.0 +/- 4.0 kg/m(2)) walked on a treadmill for 5-min bouts beginning at 0.5 mph and increasing in 0.5 mph increments. Performance termination criteria included: 1) transitioning to running, 2) reaching 75% of age-predicted maximum heart rate, or 3) reporting a Borg rating of perceived exertion > 13. Cadence was directly observed (i.e., hand tallied). Intensity (i.e., oxygen uptake [VO2] mL/kg/min) was assessed with an indirect calorimeter and converted to METs (1 MET = 3.5 mL/kg/min). A combination of segmented regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) modeling approaches was used to identify optimal cadence thresholds. Final heuristic thresholds were determined based on an evaluation of classification accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, overall accuracy). Results The regression model identified 101.7 (95% Predictive Interval [PI]: 54.9-110.6) and 132.1 (95% PI: 122.0-142.2) steps/min as optimal cadence thresholds for 3 METs and 6 METs, respectively. Corresponding values based on ROC models were 98.5 (95% Confidence Intervals [CI]: 97.1-104.9) and 117.3 (95% CI: 113.1-126.1) steps/min. Considering both modeling approaches, the selected heuristic thresholds for moderate and vigorous intensity were 100 and 130 steps/min, respectively. Conclusions Consistent with our previous report in 21 to 40-year-old adults, cadence thresholds of 100 and 130 steps/min emerged as heuristic values associated with 3 and 6 METs, respectively, in 41 to 60-year-old adults. These values were selected based on their utility for public health messaging and on the trade-offs in classification accuracy parameters from both statistical methods. Findings will need to be confirmed in older adults and in free-living settings. ItemCEO letters: Hospitality corporate narratives during the COVID-19 pandemic(Elsevier, 2021) Im, Jinyoung; Kim, Haemi; Miao, Li; Pennsylvania State University; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; Oklahoma State University - StillwaterFor hospitality organizations, the need for compelling corporate narratives is particularly acute in dealing with the COVID-19 crisis due to the scope and severity of its threat to employees, customers, the general public, and the fundamental survival of the company itself. Thus, this study aims to identify corporate narrative strategies and examine how hospitality companies deploy such narrative strategies with impression management tactics during the COVID-19 pandemic. Anchored in the Aristotelian concept of persuasive rhetoric and impression management theory, this study content-analyzed 57 CEO letters published by hospitality companies during the COVID-19 outbreak and found the prevalent rhetoric appeals and patterns of rhetoric appeals with impression management tactics embedded in the letters. ItemWalking cadence (steps/min) and intensity in 61-85-year-old adults: the CADENCE-Adults study(BMC, 2021) Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Mora-Gonzalez, Jose; Ducharme, Scott W.; Aguiar, Elroy J.; Schuna, John M., Jr.; Barreira, Tiago, V; Moore, Christopher C.; Chase, Colleen J.; Gould, Zachary R.; Amalbert-Birriel, Marcos A.; Chipkin, Stuart R.; Staudenmayer, John; University of North Carolina; University of North Carolina Charlotte; California State University Long Beach; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; Oregon State University; Syracuse University; University of North Carolina Chapel Hill; University of Massachusetts AmherstBackground: Heuristic (i.e., evidence-based, rounded) cadences of >= 100 and >= 130 steps/min have consistently corresponded with absolutely-defined moderate (3 metabolic equivalents [METs]) and vigorous (6 METs) physical activity intensity, respectively, in adults 21-60 years of age. There is no consensus regarding similar thresholds in older adults. Purpose: To provide heuristic cadence thresholds for 3, 4, 5, and 6 METs in 61-85-year-old adults. Methods: Ninety-eight community-dwelling ambulatory and ostensibly healthy older adults (age = 72.6 +/- 6.9 years; 49% women) walked on a treadmill for a series of 5-min bouts (beginning at 0.5 mph with 0.5 mph increments) in this laboratory-based cross-sectional study until: 1) transitioning to running, 2) reaching >= 75% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, or 3) reporting a Borg rating of perceived exertion > 13. Cadence was directly observed and hand-tallied. Intensity (oxygen uptake [VO2] mL/kg/min) was assessed with indirect calorimetry and converted to METs (1 MET = 3.5 mL/kg/min). Cadence thresholds were identified via segmented mixed effects model regression and using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. Final heuristic cadence thresholds represented an analytical compromise based on classification accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and overall accuracy). Results: Cadences of 103.1 (95% Prediction Interval: 70.0-114.2), 116.4 (105.3-127.4), 129.6 (118.6-140.7), and 142.9 steps/min (131.8-148.4) were identified for 3, 4, 5, and 6 METs, respectively, based on the segmented regression. Comparable values based on ROC analysis were 100.3 (95% Confidence Intervals: 95.7-103.1), 111.5 (106.1-112.9), 116.0 (112.4-120.2), and 128.6 steps/min (128.3-136.4). Heuristic cadence thresholds of 100, 110, and 120 were associated with 3, 4, and 5 METs. Data to inform a threshold for >= 6 METs was limited, as only 6/98 (6.0%) participants achieved this intensity. Conclusions: Consistent with previous data collected from 21-40 and 41-60-year-old adults, heuristic cadence thresholds of 100, 110, and 120 steps/min were associated with 3, 4, and 5 METs, respectively, in 61-85-year-old adults. Most older adults tested did not achieve the intensity of >= 6 METs; therefore, our data do not support establishing thresholds corresponding with this intensity level. ItemA catalog of validity indices for step counting wearable technologies during treadmill walking: the CADENCE-Kids study(BMC, 2021) Gould, Zachary R.; Mora-Gonzalez, Jose; Aguiar, Elroy J.; Schuna, John M., Jr.; Barreira, Tiago, V; Moore, Christopher C.; Staudenmayer, John; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; University of Massachusetts Amherst; University of North Carolina; University of North Carolina Charlotte; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; Oregon State University; Syracuse University; University of North Carolina Chapel HillBackground: Wearable technologies play an important role in measuring physical activity (PA) and promoting health. Standardized validation indices (i.e., accuracy, bias, and precision) compare performance of step counting wearable technologies in young people. Purpose: To produce a catalog of validity indices for step counting wearable technologies assessed during different treadmill speeds (slow [0.8-3.2 km/h], normal [4.0-6.4 km/h], fast [7.2-8.0 km/h]), wear locations (waist, wrist/arm, thigh, and ankle), and age groups (children, 6-12 years; adolescents, 13-17 years; young adults, 18-20 years). Methods: One hundred seventeen individuals (13.1 +/- 4.2 years, 50.4% female) participated in this cross-sectional study and completed 5-min treadmill bouts (0.8 km/h to 8.0 km/h) while wearing eight devices (Waist Actical, ActiGraph GT3X+, NL-1000, SW-200; Wrist ActiGraph GT3X+; Arm: SenseWear; Thigh: activPAL; Ankle: StepWatch). Directly observed steps served as the criterion measure. Accuracy (mean absolute percentage error, MAPE), bias (mean percentage error, MPE), and precision (correlation coefficient, r; standard deviation, SD; coefficient of variation, CoV) were computed. Results: Five of the eight tested wearable technologies (i.e., Actical, waist-worn ActiGraph GT3X+, activPAL, StepWatch, and SW-200) performed at < 5% MAPE over the range of normal speeds. More generally, waist (MAPE = 4%), thigh (4%) and ankle (5%) locations displayed higher accuracy than the wrist location (23%) at normal speeds. On average, all wearable technologies displayed the lowest accuracy across slow speeds (MAPE = 50.1 +/- 35.5%), and the highest accuracy across normal speeds (MAPE = 15.9 +/- 21.7%). Speed and wear location had a significant effect on accuracy and bias (P < 0.001), but not on precision (P> 0.05). Age did not have any effect (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Standardized validation indices focused on accuracy, bias, and precision were cataloged by speed, wear location, and age group to serve as important reference points when selecting and/or evaluating device performance in young people moving forward. Reduced performance can be expected at very slow walking speeds (0.8 to 3.2 km/h) for all devices. Ankle-worn and thigh-worn devices demonstrated the highest accuracy. Speed and wear location had a significant effect on accuracy and bias, but not precision. ItemLycopene supplementation of maternal and weanling high-fat diets influences adipose tissue development and metabolic outcomes of Sprague-Dawley offspring(Cambridge University Press, 2021) Senkus, Katelyn E.; Zhang, Yanqi; Wang, Hui; Tan, Libo; Crowe-White, Kristi M.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaDietary patterns high in fat contribute to the onset of cardiometabolic disease through the accrual of adipose tissue (AT). Lycopene, a carotenoid shown to exert multiple health benefits, may disrupt these metabolic perturbations. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate AT development and obesity-associated metabolic outcomes in the neonate and weanling offspring of Sprague-Dawley mothers fed a high-fat diet (HFD = 50 % fat) with and without lycopene supplementation. Sprague-Dawley rats consumed either a normal fat diet (NFD; 25 % fat) or HFD throughout gestation. Upon delivery, half of HFD mothers were transitioned to an HFD supplemented with 1 % lycopene (HFDL). At postnatal day 14 (P14), P25, and P35, pups were euthanised, body weight was recorded, and visceral white AT (WAT) and brown AT (BAT) mass were determined. Serum redox status, adipokines, glucose and inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated, as well as BAT mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). The HFD was effective in inducing weight gain as evident by significantly greater BW and WAT in the HFD group compared to the NFD group across all time points. Compared to HFD, the HFDL group exhibited significantly greater BAT with concomitant reductions in WAT mass, serum lipid peroxides and serum glucose. No significant differences were observed in serum adipokines, inflammatory markers or UCP1 expression despite the aforementioned alterations in AT development. Results suggest that dietary lycopene supplementation may influence metabolic outcomes during the weaning and post-weaning periods. Additional research is warranted to elucidate molecular mechanisms by which lycopene influences AT biology. ItemInhibitory Effect of Ascorbic Acid on in vitro Enzymatic Digestion of Raw and Cooked Starches(Frontiers, 2021) Guo, Jiayue; Gutierrez, Alyssa; Tan, Libo; Kong, Lingyan; University of Alabama TuscaloosaAscorbic acid, also known as vitamin C, was previously reported to inhibit the activity of pancreatic alpha-amylase, the primary digestive enzyme for starch. A major implication of such inhibition is a slowed rate of starch digestion into glucose, which thereby reduces postprandial hyperglycemia. The aim of this study was to explore the inhibitory effects of ascorbic acid at various concentrations on the in vitro digestion of high amylose maize starch (HAMS) and potato starch (PS) in both raw and cooked conditions. Resistant starch (RS) content, defined as the starch that remained after 4 h of simulated in vitro enzymatic digestion, was measured for the starch samples. Upon the addition of ascorbic acid, the RS contents increased in both raw and cooked starches. Cooking significantly reduced the RS contents as compared to raw starches, and less increase in RS was observed with the addition of ascorbic acid. The inhibitory effect of ascorbic acid on the digestion of raw starches showed a dose-dependent trend until it reached the maximum extent of inhibition. At the concentrations of 12.5 and 18.75 mg/mL, ascorbic acid exhibited the most potent inhibitory effect on the in vitro starch digestion in raw and cooked conditions, respectively. Overall, our results strongly indicate that ascorbic acid may function as a glycemic modulatory agent beyond other important functions, and its effects persist upon cooking with certain concentrations applied. ItemMicronutrients for potential therapeutic use against COVID-19; a review(Elsevier, 2021) Giovane, Richard A.; Di Giovanni-Kinsley, Stephanie; Keeton, Emily; University of Alabama TuscaloosaBackground: SARS CoV-2 has caused a pandemic that has challenged both clinicians and researchers in finding an effective treatment option. Currently there only exists a two series vaccine that has a high efficacy in preventing infection. There is no standard effective treatment against SARS CoV-2 however several nutraceuticals such as melatonin, zinc, selenium, vitamin C and vitamin D are being proposed as prevention and treatment options. (C) 2021 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. ItemNeuroprotective effects of ATPase inhibitory factor 1 preventing mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease(Nature Portfolio, 2022) Chung, InHyeok; Park, Han-A; Kang, Jun; Kim, Heyyoung; Hah, Su Min; Lee, Juhee; Kim, Hyeon Soo; Choi, Won-Seok; Chung, Ji Hyung; Shin, Min-Jeong; Korea University; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; Pochon Cha University; Chonnam National University; Korea University Medicine (KU Medicine)Mitochondrial dysfunction is a key element in the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). The inefficient operation of the electron transport chain (ETC) impairs energy production and enhances the generation of oxidative stress contributing to the loss of dopaminergic cells in the brain. ATPase inhibitory factor 1 (IF1) is a regulator of mitochondrial energy metabolism. IF1 binds directly to the F(1)Fo ATP synthase and prevents ATP wasting during compromised energy metabolism. In this study, we found treatment with IF1 protects mitochondria against PD-like insult in vitro. SH-SY5Y cells treated with IF1 were resistant to loss of ATP and mitochondrial inner membrane potential during challenge with rotenone, an inhibitor of complex I in the ETC. We further demonstrated that treatment with IF1 reversed rotenone-induced superoxide production in mitochondria and peroxide accumulation in whole cells. Ultimately, IF1 decreased protein levels of pro-apoptotic Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP, rescuing SH-SY5Y cells from rotenone-mediated apoptotic death. Administration of IF1 significantly improved the results of pole and hanging tests performed by PD mice expressing human alpha-synuclein. This indicates that IF1 mitigates PD-associated motor deficit. Together, these findings suggest that IF1 exhibits a neuroprotective effect preventing mitochondrial dysfunction in PD pathology. ItemFitness Costs of Maternal Ornaments and Prenatal Corticosterone Manifest as Reduced Offspring Survival and Sexual Ornament Expression(Frontiers, 2022) Assis, Braulio A.; Avery, Julian D.; Earley, Ryan L.; Langkilde, Tracy; Pennsylvania State University; Pennsylvania State University - University Park; University of Alabama TuscaloosaColorful traits (i.e., ornaments) that signal quality have well-established relationships with individual condition and physiology. Furthermore, ornaments expressed in females may have indirect fitness effects in offspring via the prenatal physiology associated with, and social consequences of, these signaling traits. Here we examine the influence of prenatal maternal physiology and phenotype on condition-dependent signals of their offspring in adulthood. Specifically, we explore how prenatal maternal testosterone, corticosterone, and ornament color and size correlate with female and male offspring survival to adulthood and ornament quality in the lizard Sceloporus undulatus. Offspring of females with more saturated badges and high prenatal corticosterone were less likely to survive to maturity. Badge saturation and area were negatively correlated between mothers and their male offspring, and uncorrelated to those in female offspring. Maternal prenatal corticosterone was correlated negatively with badge saturation of male offspring in adulthood. Our results indicate that maternal ornamentation and prenatal concentrations of a stress-relevant hormone can lead to compounding fitness costs by reducing offspring survival to maturity and impairing expression of a signal of quality in surviving males. This mechanism may occur in concert with social costs of ornamentation in mothers. Intergenerational effects of female ornamentation and prenatal stress may be interdependent drivers of balancing selection and intralocus sexual conflict over signaling traits. ItemEvaluation of a Type 2 diabetes risk reduction online program for women with recent gestational diabetes: a randomised trial(BMC, 2022) Taylor, Rachael; Rollo, Megan E.; Baldwin, Jennifer N.; Hutchesson, Melinda; Aguiar, Elroy J.; Wynne, Katie; Young, Ashley; Callister, Robin; Collins, Clare E.; University of Newcastle; Hunter Medical Research Institute; University of Alabama TuscaloosaBackground: To evaluate the preliminary efficacy, feasibility and acceptability of the 3-month Body Balance Beyond (BBB) online program among Australian women with overweight/obesity and recent gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods: Women were randomised into either: 1) High Personalisation (HP) (access to'BBB'website, video coaching sessions, text message support); 2) Medium Personalisation (MP) (website and text message support); or 3) Low Personalisation (LP) (website only). Generalised linear mixed models were used to evaluate preliminary efficacy, weight, diet quality, physical activity levels, self-efficacy and quality of life (QoL) at baseline and 3-months. Feasibility was assessed by recruitment and retention metrics and acceptability determined via online process evaluation survey at 3-months. Results: Eighty three women were randomised, with 76 completing the study. Self-efficacy scores showed significant improvements in confidence to resist eating in a variety of situations from baseline to 3-months in HP compared to MP and LP groups (P=.03). The difference in mean QoL scores favoured the HP compared to MP and LP groups (P=.03). Half of the women (HP n=17[81%], MP n=12[75%], LP n=9[56%]) lost weight at 3-months. No significant group-by-time effect were reported for other outcomes. Two-thirds of women in the HP group were satisfied with the program overall and 86% would recommend it to others, compared with 25% and 44% in the MP group, and 14% and 36% in the LP group, respectively. Conclusions: Video coaching sessions were associated with improvements in QoL scores and self-efficacy, however further refinement of the BBB website and text messages support could improve program acceptability.