Theses and Dissertations - Department of Special Education & Multiple Abilities

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    This may be a really good opportunity to make the world a more autism friendly place: Professionals' perspectives on the effects of COVID-19 on autistic individuals
    (Elsevier, 2021) Spain, Debbie; Mason, David; Capp, Simone J.; Stoppelbein, Laura; White, Susan W.; Happe, Francesca; University of London; King's College London; South London & Maudsley NHS Trust; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Background: The COVID-19 (C-19) pandemic affects everyone. Autistic individuals may be at increased risk of experiencing difficulties coping with the impact of C-19 (e.g. due to unexpected changes to usual activities and routines, and the general sense of uncertainty). This preliminary study gathered the perspectives of health and social care professionals, and researchers, about: (1) vulnerability factors for coping with the pandemic; (2) the impact of the pandemic; (3) service provision during the pandemic; and (4) interventions to support reintegration during and post the pandemic. Method: We conducted an online survey, comprising Likert-scale and free text responses. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively, and qualitative data thematically. Results: Thirty-seven participants, working in clinical, education and academic settings with autistic individuals, completed the survey. C-19 had substantially impacted service provision, causing major disruption or loss of services. Thematic analysis indicated six overarching themes: (1) vulnerability factors for coping with C-19 and lockdown; (2) positive and negative impact of lockdown (for autistic individuals, families and professionals); (3) public health response to C-19; (4) service provision during the pandemic; (5) inequalities; and (6) looking to the future. Conclusions: Professionals, across disciplines and settings, must now work together with autistic individuals and their families, to understand the impact of these extraordinary circumstances and develop ways everyone can be supported more effectively.
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    It took a pandemic: Perspectives on impact, stress, and telehealth from caregivers of people with autism
    (Pergamon, 2021) White, Susan W.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Scott, Hunter; Spain, Debbie; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; University of London; King's College London
    Shelter in place mandates due to the COVID-19 pandemic left caregivers to determine how to best meet the therapeutic requirements of their children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Understanding the challenges faced by families, and their experiences using telehealth for the first time, may help make services sustainable in future public health emergencies. A sample of 70 caregivers of people with ASD from across the US completed an anonymous online survey. Results indicate that impaired emotion regulation was a primary contributor of parent-reported stress for persons with ASD during the pandemic, while loss of established structure and routine contributed to parental stress. Nearly half the sample reported using telehealth for the first time. Many caregivers were appreciative that telehealth permitted continuation of services, but expressed concerns about limited effectiveness due in part to their children?s social communication problems.
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    Strengths and weaknesses in reading skills of youth with intellectual disabilities
    (Pergamon, 2013) Channell, Marie Moore; Loveall, Susan J.; Conners, Frances A.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Reading-related skills of youth with intellectual disability (ID) were compared with those of typically developing (TD) children of similar verbal ability level. The group with ID scored lower than the TD group on word recognition and phonological decoding, but similarly on orthographic processing and rapid automatized naming (RAN). Further, phonological decoding significantly mediated the relation between group membership and word recognition, whereas neither orthographic processing nor RAN did so. The group with ID also underperformed the TD group on phonological awareness and phonological memory, both of which significantly mediated the relation between group membership and phonological decoding. These data suggest that poor word recognition in youth with ID may be due largely to poor phonological decoding, which in turn may be due largely to poor phonological awareness and poor phonological memory. More focus on phonological skills in the classroom may help students with ID to develop better word recognition skills. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    Visuo-spatial ability in individuals with Down syndrome: Is it really a strength?
    (Pergamon, 2014) Yang, Yingying; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward C.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with extreme difficulty in verbal skills and relatively better visuo-spatial skills. Indeed, visuo-spatial ability is often considered a strength in DS. However, it is not clear whether this strength is only relative to the poor verbal skills, or, more impressively, relative to cognitive ability in general. To answer this question, we conducted an extensive literature review of studies on visuo-spatial abilities in people with Down syndrome from January 1987 to May 2013. Based on a general taxonomy of spatial abilities patterned after Lohman, Pellegrino, Alderton, and Regian (1987) and Carroll (1993) and existing studies of DS, we included five different domains of spatial abilities - visuo-spatial memory, visuo-spatial construction, mental rotation, closure, and wayfinding. We evaluated a total of 49 studies including 127 different comparisons. Most comparisons involved a group with DS vs. a group with typical development matched on mental age and compared on a task measuring one of the five visuo-spatial abilities. Although further research is needed for firm conclusions on some visuo-spatial abilities, there was no evidence that visuo-spatial ability is a strength in DS relative to general cognitive ability. Rather, the review suggests an uneven profile of visuo-spatial abilities in DS in which some abilities are commensurate with general cognitive ability level, and others are below. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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    Rule-Based Category Learning in Down Syndrome
    (American Association on Intellectual Developmental Disabilities, 2014) Phillips, B. Allyson; Conners, Frances A.; Merrill, Edward; Klinger, Mark R.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; University of North Carolina; University of North Carolina Chapel Hill
    Rule-based category learning was examined in youths with Down syndrome (DS), youths with intellectual disability (ID), and typically developing (TD) youths. Two tasks measured category learning: the Modified Card Sort task (MCST) and the Concept Formation test of the Woodcock-Johnson-III (Woodock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001). In regression-based analyses, DS and ID groups performed below the level expected for their nonverbal ability. In cross-sectional developmental trajectory analyses, results depended on the task. On the MCST, the DS and ID groups were similar to the TD group. On the Concept Formation test, the DS group had slower cross-sectional change than the other 2 groups. Category learning may be an area of difficulty for those with ID, but task-related factors may affect trajectories for youths with DS.
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    A systematic review of obesity interventions targeting anthropometric changes in youth with intellectual disabilities
    (Sage, 2020) Conrad, Eric; Knowlden, Adam P.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Due to the increased prevalence of obesity and disparity experienced by youth with intellectual disabilities, efforts to synthesize existing knowledge of interventions to attenuate obesity within this marginalized population is imperative. The purpose of this investigation is to systematically analyze interventions targeting anthropometric changes in youth with intellectual disabilities. A search of Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Educational Resources Information Center, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, and Psychological Information Database was conducted for the time frame of January 2006 to October 2016. Data extraction resulted in a total of 10 interventions that met inclusion criteria. Included studies mainly comprised participants having mild-to-moderate intellectual disability with diverse comorbidities. Five studies indicated significant positive outcomes in at least one anthropometric measure. The majority of programs utilized physical activity targeting individual-level change as the primary intervention modality. Weaknesses of the reviewed studies and inconclusive evidence indicate the need for additional research to gauge the effectiveness of interventions to treat obesity among youth with intellectual disabilities.
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    Serving Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Age of COVID-19: Special Considerations for Rural Families
    (Sage, 2023) Tomeny, Theodore S.; Hudac, Caitlin M.; Malaia, Evie A.; Morett, Laura M.; Tomeny, Kimberly R.; Watkins, Laci; Kana, Rajesh K.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    This position paper explores the needs of rural families of children, adolescents, and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during the age of COVID-19. Prior to COVID-19, literature portrays elevated stress in families of individuals with ASD and health and socioeconomic disparities for rural and underserved populations. These disparities were exacerbated due to COVID-19 and subsequent lockdowns and economic turmoil. Academic and adaptive skills training were particularly impacted due to school closures, with parents tasked with taking some responsibility for training these skills. Our goals for this article focus on special considerations for rural families regarding (a) neurobiological and developmental impacts of stressful experiences like COVID-19, (b) delineation of the impacts on individuals with ASD and other comorbid and related conditions, and (c) education and intervention needs during these times. Finally, we offer suggestions for future care during pandemic events, including recommendations for improving service delivery under such conditions.
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    A cross-sectional analysis of executive function in Down syndrome from 2 to 35 years
    (Wiley, 2017) Loveall, S. J.; Conners, F. A.; Tungate, A. S.; Hahn, L. J.; Osso, T. D.; University of Mississippi; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; University of Kansas; University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
    Background Previous research has indicated a unique profile of executive function (EF) in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). However, there is a paucity of research on EF in adults with DS. This study aimed to gain a broader understanding of strengths and weaknesses in EF in DS from 2 to 35 years. Method Parents of 112 individuals with DS between 2 and 35 years participated in this study. Parents either completed the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function - for individuals 6+ years -or the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool Version - for children 2-5 years. Results Results suggest not only overall difficulties but also patterns of strength and weakness within EF for individuals with DS. For the 2 to 5-year-old group, emotional control and shift were relative strengths, planning/organisation and inhibit were intermediate skills, and working memory was a relative weakness. For the 6 to 18-year-old group, emotional control and organisation of materials were relative strengths, inhibit and initiate were intermediate skills, and working memory, monitor, planning/organisation, and shift were relative weaknesses. Most abilities were consistent from 2 to 18 years, except shift, which decreased in preadolescence before beginning to recover in adolescence. Across the full age range (2-35 years), composite scores indicated quadratic trends in inhibit, working memory, and planning/organisation, and a cubic trend in shift, with EF abilities generally declining in middle childhood before recovering in adulthood. Conclusions This study extends previous research on EF in DS by providing an initial description of EF profiles across the lifespan. More longitudinal and behavioural research is needed to further characterise the development of EF in DS.
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    Confirmatory factor analysis of the BRIEF2 in a sample of youth with Down syndrome
    (Wiley, 2023) Soltani, A.; Schworer, E. K.; Jacobson, L. A.; Channell, M. M.; Lee, N. R.; Faught, G. G.; Grzadzinski, R.; Fidler, D.; Esbensen, A. J.; Islamic Azad University; Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center; University of Wisconsin Madison; Kennedy Krieger Institute; Johns Hopkins University; University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign; Drexel University; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; University of North Carolina; Colorado State University
    BackgroundThe factor structure of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, second edition (BRIEF2) has been widely examined in both typically developing children and specific clinical samples. Despite the frequent use of the BRIEF2 for measuring executive functioning in individuals with Down syndrome, no study has investigated the factorial validity or dimensionality of the BRIEF2 in this population. This study aimed to address this notable gap in the literature. MethodsParents of 407 children and youth with Down syndrome aged 6-18 years completed the BRIEF2 as part of different studies led by six sites. Three competing models proposed by previous studies were analysed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis: the theoretical structure of the BRIEF2 where the scales were constrained to load on three factors labelled as Cognitive, Behavioral, and Emotional Regulation, a two-factor correlated model with the merged Behavioral and Emotional regulation, and a single-factor model. ResultsThe three-factor model provided a better fit than the one- and two-factor models, yet a large correlation was observed between Behavioural and Emotional regulation factors. The results provide meaningful explanatory value for the theoretical structure of the BRIEF2. However, the Behavioral and Emotional regulation factors might be less differentiated and the two-factor structure of the BRIEF2 may also make theoretical and empirical sense. ConclusionsAlthough more studies are needed to further examine the factor structure of the BRIEF2 in youth with Down syndrome, this investigation provides preliminary support for the interpretation of the three executive function index scores provided by the BRIEF2: Cognitive, Behavioral, and Emotional Regulation.
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    Matching variables for research involving youth with Down syndrome: Leiter-R versus PPVT-4
    (Pergamon, 2014) Phillips, B. Allyson; Loveall, Susan J.; Channell, Marie Moore; Conners, Frances A.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; University of Kansas; University of California Davis
    Much of what is known about the cognitive profile of Down syndrome (DS) is based on using either receptive vocabulary (e.g., PPTV-4) or nonverbal ability (e.g., Leiter-R) as a baseline to represent cognitive developmental level. In the present study, we examined the relation between these two measures in youth with DS, with non-DS intellectual disability (ID), and with typical development (TD). We also examined the degree to which these two measures produce similar results when used as a group matching variable. In a cross-sectional developmental trajectory analysis, we found that the relation between PPVT-4 and Leiter-R was largely similar across groups. However, when contrasting PPVT-4. and Leiter-R as alternate matching variables, the pattern of results was not always the same. When matched on Leiter-R or PPVT-4, the group with DS performed below that of the groups with ID and TD on receptive grammar and below the group with TD on category learning. When matched on the PPVT-4, the group with ID performed below that of the group with TD on receptive grammar and category learning, but these differences between the groups with ID and TD were not found when matched on the Leiter-R. The results of the study suggest that the PPVT-4 and Leiter-R are interchangeable at least for some outcome measures for comparing youth With DS and TD, but they may produce different results when comparing youth with ID and TD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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    Growth and Decline in Language and Phonological Memory Over Two Years Among Adolescents With Down Syndrome
    (American Association on Intellectual Developmental Disabilities, 2018) Conners, Frances A.; Tungate, Andrew S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Merrill, Edward C.; Faught, Gayle G.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa; University of California Davis
    Forty-two adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) ages 10 to 21 years completed a battery of language and phonological memory measures twice, 2 years apart. Individual differences were highly stable across two years. Receptive vocabulary scores improved, there was no change in receptive or expressive grammar scores, and nonword repetition scores declined. Digit memory and expressive vocabulary scores improved among younger adolescents, but generally held steady among older adolescents. These patterns may reveal key points in development at which interventions may be best applied. Further research is needed to understand specific processes In tasks that appear to be slowing or declining during adolescence. They may be important for understanding early aging and dementia in DS.
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    Family Experience in a Regional Participant Contact Registry for Research on Intellectual Disability
    (American Association on Intellectual Developmental Disabilities, 2014) Conners, Frances A.; Phillips, B. Allyson; Rhodes, Jennifer D.; Hamilton, James C.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Participant recruitment is one of the most significant challenges in research on intellectual disability (ID). One potential solution is to develop a participant contact registry, which allows the researcher to contact participants directly rather than recruiting through multiple schools or service agencies. The authors describe the development of one such registry and results of a survey of registry families. Results suggest that families joined the registry to help others, they hope research in the ID field improves the daily lives of individuals with ID and their families, and they find research participation to be a positive experience. However, logistic concerns can be an important barrier to their research participation, and they would like more information about the research study both before and after participating.
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    A Function-Based Adaptation to the Self-Regulated Strategy Development Instructional Approach for Students with Behavioral Challenges in Residential Treatment
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020) Rollins, Lauren Hart; Swoszowski, Nicole Cain; Jolivette, Kristine; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    A MODIFICATION TO THE SELF-REGULATED STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACH FOR STUDENTS WITH BEHAVIORAL CHALLENGES Students with and at-risk for behavioral concerns, such as those with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), often have academic concerns as well that adversely affect their overall school success. Researchers have investigated many academic and behavioral interventions to determine effective strategies for students with and at-risk for behavioral challenges, including the self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) instructional approach. Previous researchers have concluded the SRSD instructional approach is effective for students with and at-risk for behavior challenges and have recommended future studies incorporate behavioral supports to address students’ behavioral needs simultaneously. This study intended to investigate the use of a reading comprehension strategy, TRAP, using the SRSD instructional approach with a function-based adaptation to the self-reinforcement procedures. Further, this study intended to explore teachers’ perspectives of supporting students’ academics and behavior in residential treatment facilities. Due to COVID-19, only one participant was able to receive the intervention, making this an AB study. In addition, only one teacher was available for the interview. The initial findings of this study show potentially promising effects of TRAP with function-based self-reinforcement procedures. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
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    Augmented Reality for Teaching Personal Finance Skills in the Community
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020) Romano, Shannon; Mutua, Kagendo; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    The ability to manage one’s personal finances is an indicator for success and autonomy among adolescents preparing for adulthood. Accessing and spending money allows an individual to participate in preferred social and recreational activities within the community. For individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID), however, personal finance skills that afford opportunities for community participation are hindered by the limited adaptive skills associated with having ID and increased reliance on family and staff. These limiting factors can diminish an individual’s self-determination and overall quality of life. The United States Department of Health and Human Services and The World Health Organization both identify the need for technologies that can improve accessibility in communities for individuals with ID. Therefore, this study used a multiple-probe design to examine the effectiveness of a video-modeling intervention, delivered through an augmented reality application, for teaching youth with ID to perform personal finance skills in their community. Results of the study show the intervention was effective for teaching the participants to withdraw money from an ATM and to pay for items using a debit card. Additionally, three of the four participants found the intervention to be a socially acceptable method for accessing instruction while in the community.
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    Self-Regulated Strategy Development and a Low-Intensity Behavior Strategy: Intensified TWA and Mindful Breathing to Improve the Reading Comprehension Skills of Middle School Students with Learning and Behavioral Disorders
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2021) McFall, Aundrea; Jolivette, Kristine; Swoszowski, Nicole C.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Students who present with high-incidence disabilities often exhibit deficits in reading comprehension and self-regulatory behavior. Chapter 1 consists of two research to practice papers in manuscript form (with references and tables included in each) discussing how to address these deficits through explicit instruction in reading comprehension and mindful breathing. Chapter 2 consists of a multiple probe across classes single-case design study on TWA, a specific reading comprehension strategy used with the self-regulated strategy development (SRSD) instructional approach, which teaches students to self-regulate and self-monitor while reading. Five students in 5th, 6th, and 8th grades with high-incident disabilities received SRSD TWA with mindful breathing instruction in a special education resource room. The variables of number of main idea and details, length of retell, order of main idea and details, number of self-instructions, number of observed mindful breathing, and goal-setting were examined. Across all participants, the BC-SMD was 1.46 (SE = 0.35) which suggests a large effect. Implications for teachers, limitations, and future directions are provided. Data collection and results of this study were impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.
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    A Comparison of Parents' and Teachers' Assessments of Trainable Mentally Retarded Students
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 1976) Geiger, William Lee; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    The purpose of this study is twofold: (1) to investigate the relationships and the differences among mothers', fathers', and teachers' assessments of TMR children, and (2) to attempt to identify demographic variables which are significantly related to differences between parents' and teachers' and between mothers' and fathers' assessments of TMR children.
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    Patterns of special education teachers' assistive technology knowledge and use in p-12 education
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020-12) Stewart, Elizabeth Walter; Mutua, Kagendo; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    This exploratory research study used quantitative methods to explore patterns of specialeducation teachers’ assistive technology knowledge and use. Barriers to assistive technology (AT) use and facilitators that impact assistive technology use were also identified and explored. The following research questions were addressed: 1) what do special education teachers know about assistive technology and its application in P-12 education; 2) to what extent do special education teachers perceive the Quality Indicators of Assistive Technology (QIAT) being present in their school districts; 3) what are the barriers to assistive technology use for special education teachers; and 4) what factors facilitate assistive technology use by special education teachers? A self-report online survey was administered to special education teachers in Alabama. The survey consisted of five sections: demographics, knowledge of assistive technology, indicators of assistive technology, barriers to assistive technology, and facilitators of assistive technology. Findings in this study uncovered a disparity in knowledge related to AT consideration, AT services, and AT tools. Participants perceived their knowledge level to be highest in the area of AT tools, especially low-tech and mid-tech devices. In addition, lack of knowledge and training, lack of device options, and lack of funding were most frequently reported as barriers to assistive technology use. Barriers and facilitators of assistive technology were found to have a significant impact on special education teacher knowledge. It is recommended that the Alabama State Department of Education collaborate with school districts and higher education institutions to create training options that equip special education teachers, present and future, to appropriately consider and implement assistive technology for students with disabilities. In addition, a re-examination of policies and procedures throughout the state is recommended to assure alignment with current practices and mandates associated with assistive technology.
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    The forgotten path: adult stakeholder perceptions on the transition from residential treatment facility schools to neighborhood schools
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020-12) Odom, Kimberly Paige; Jolivette, Kristine; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Youth with emotional/behavioral disorders (E/BD) may be negatively impacted by their behavioral excesses and deficits across domains requiring more intensive supports and treatment than can be provided in a typical school. As a result, some of these youth will receive their supports and treatment from placement in a residential treatment facility (RTF) that provides around-the-clock services. Once a youth completes their treatment at the facility, they will integrate back into the community, including for some, enrollment in a neighborhood school. This transition from the RTF to the neighborhood school can be difficult due to the change in supports (e.g., small group to large group instruction, fewer treatment options related to mental health). Such a transition is an emerging pathway that was the focus of this qualitative inquiry. A focus group, interviews, and record reviews were conducted at an RTF serving students with E/BD in a Southeastern state. These RTF stakeholders shared their perspectives on the transition process from their facility to neighborhood schools. Using an intrinsic, instrumental, descriptive case study design, data were analyzed through the lens of sociocultural theory, a priori coding, and inductive analyses. The constructed themes (i.e., collaboration, communication, education, individualization, and involvement) align with the transition literature for best practices of different pathways. Limitations and future directions are provided within a lens of disruption as the novel coronavirus pandemic and facility access restrictions occurred during data collection limiting facility access to a single facility and limited time of contact with transition stakeholders.
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    Self-determination and Leader in Me schools: a case study
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020) Shaw, Shandra Meshell; Mutua, Kagendo; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    This investigation employed a qualitative single case embedded design to understand the teaching practices and self-determination experiences of students with high incidence disabilities in a Lighthouse elementary Leader in Me school. This study addressed the following research questions: 1) how do teachers in an elementary Lighthouse Leader in Me school both understand and support students’ with high incidence disabilities need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness; 2) how does training in the 7 Habits principles impact self-determined behaviors among students with high incidence disabilities in an elementary Lighthouse Leader in Me school; and 3) how does the social contextual environment of an elementary Lighthouse Leader in Me school support the exercise and expression of self-determined behaviors for students with high incidence disabilities. Participants included four fifth-grade students with specific learning disabilities and Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder who received special education services inside the general education classroom for at least 80% of the school day. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews, student leadership portfolio discussions, school tours, observations, and artifact examination. Data were analyzed using common comparative thematic analysis. Results suggest that a culture of high expectations accompanied by teacher supports created an inclusive learning environment conducive for self-determined behaviors among students with high incidence disabilities. Overall, students experienced positive self- iii determination outcomes with limited sustained impact. Recommendations for program considerations and further research are provided.
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    Telecoaching in early intervention: supporting professionals and families of toddlers with or at risk for autism spectrum disorder
    (University of Alabama Libraries, 2020) Tomeny, Kimberly Resua; McWilliam, Robert A.; University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
    Young children with or at risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) should receive early intervention services to achieve optimal outcomes, and recommended practices in early intervention reflect family centeredness, contextual learning in routines and natural environments, and supports for caregivers via a caregiver-implemented approach to intervention. Increasing evidence demonstrates gaps between recommended and actual practices in early intervention and in services for children with ASD, and discrepancies often exist between professionals’ perceptions of their practice and their actual practice, potentially contributing to an implementation gap. Distance coaching via technology, or telecoaching, has become an increasingly viable method of supporting professionals’ use of best practices in early intervention/early childhood special education (EI/ECSE). Although studies have examined the implementation of different telecoaching methods with various early childhood professionals, limited research has explored the use of telecoaching with early intervention professionals (EI professionals) in the community. The present study used a mixed-methods design to examine differences between EI professionals’ reported and actual practices and to examine bug-in-ear telecoaching versus video review telecoaching to support EI professionals’ use of recommended practices when working with families of toddlers with or at risk for ASD in early intervention. Results showed that EI professionals reported higher quality practices than they were observed using, and telecoaching is a promising, community-viable intervention to support EI professionals’ use of recommended practices.