Browsing Department of Advertising and Public Relations by Issue Date
Now showing 1 - 20 of 37
Results Per Page
ItemExcellent leadership in public relations: an application of multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis models in assessing cross-national measurement invariance(University of Alabama Libraries, 2009) Meng, Juan; Berger, Bruce K.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaPrior research suggests that the construct of leadership and theory surrounding knowledge in terms of its content, use, and role within the organization are complex. Leadership spans many levels of analysis and can be approached from different perspectives and disciplines. However, to date no research has empirically explored the leadership construct and how it contributes to communication effectiveness from the perspective of public relations practice. Thus, the attempts made here are to define the construct of excellent leadership in public relations, to identify its key dimensions, and, more importantly, to develop measurement scales of the constructs from the perspective of quantitative methodology. More specifically, this dissertation addresses the following five questions: (1) How is excellent leadership defined in public relations? (2) As a complex, multifaceted phenomenon, what key dimensions does the construct of leadership in public relations encompass? (3) How are organizational structure and culture related to the achievement of excellent leadership in public relations? Given the importance of cultural influence on leadership effectiveness, (4) Are some dimensions of excellent leadership in public relations universally relevant while some are culturally specific? and (5) What core values and qualities of public relations leadership do different cultures emphasize? In order to answer these questions, both quantitative and qualitative research phases are involved. The first phase involves online surveys to different groups of public relations practitioners in multiple locations. The conceptual measurement model and structural model are tested by using the collected quantitative data. In the second phase, in-depth interviews with senior public relations executives in the U.K. and Singapore are conducted and the results further strengthen the findings revealed at the quantitative phase. Overall, the research findings present strong evidence regarding the multi-faceted nature of the leadership construct itself and indicate that the key dimensions of leadership are largely complementary and related in a meaningful way. Moreover, the impact of organizational structure and culture on the achievement of excellent leadership in public relations is confirmed and discussed. In sum, findings from this study will help enhance the theoretical development of leadership research in public relations, as well as provide concrete directions and managerial guidelines for public relations industry. ItemMasculinity in magazine advertisements: is it in the eye of the beholder?(University of Alabama Libraries, 2009) Bassett, Mary Ellen; Kinney, Lance T.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaMasculine roles in the media are constantly changing and those evolving roles had not been observed in a decade. This research was conducted to investigate levels of masculinity in the print medium among a variety of target audiences. Its goal was to decipher how portrayals of masculinity changed based on the magazine's target audience, and several coding factors were used to determine that information. To prepare, a review of advertising and gender, psychological and communication theories, the changing nature of masculinity, feminine impact, target audience participation and an array of relevant past research was conducted. Over the course of this content analysis, 315 advertisements from nine magazines over three years were examined to distinguish changes in masculine roles based on the magazine's target audience. While few significant correlations were found, the results pertaining to raw data have proved to be a significant addition to the body of knowledge on the portrayal of male roles, especially in comparison to past research's results that were displayed in raw data without significance testing. Results show some findings consistent with past research, and some new developments as well. Overall, it was found that masculine portrayals are inconsistent among target audiences. Therefore, theoretically men and women are creating differing constructs of the masculine man, which could result in male-to-female relational conflict. ItemCommunications management in athletics and the excellence theory: a case study of the University of South Alabama football program(University of Alabama Libraries, 2011) Esfeller, John Harry; Kinney, Lance T.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaIncreasingly, universities across the country are adding college football to their athletics programs. The communications activities surrounding a football launch had never been examined relative to communications theory. The purpose of this case study was to investigate the football communications function of a university athletic program in its first years, and determine whether the theory of excellence in public relations (ET) or integrated marketing communication (IMC) theory was more reflected in the organizational structure, management, and goals of the program. The University of South Alabama (USA) was chosen as the subject of the case study, who added the sport in December 2007. To prepare, a review of ET and IMC theory and research that tested and analyzed those theories was conducted. During the course of this study, six members of the University of South Alabama's staff responsible for football communications were interviewed in person and asked questions about their experience, skills, responsibilities, their department, strategy development, decision making, and other factors that relate to ET and IMC. Three hours of interviews were transcribed, coded, analyzed, and compared back to ET and IMC to see which theory was more reflected at USA. During the analysis, it was discovered that USA implements a management structure and organizational culture that would be in line with the principles of ET, but that the technical duties, goals and objectives of their messages are highly reflective of IMC. During the course of this study, six members of the University of South Alabama's staff responsible for football communications were interviewed in person and asked questions about their experience, skills, responsibilities, their department, strategy development, decision making, and other factors that relate to ET and IMC. Three hours of interviews were transcribed, coded, analyzed, and compared back to ET and IMC to see which theory were more reflected at USA. During the analysis, it was discovered that USA implements a management structure and organizational culture that would be line with the principles of ET, but that the technical duties, goals and objectives of their messages are highly reflective of IMC. ItemSex appeals and wartime messages in beauty and health product advertising: 1941-1946(University of Alabama Libraries, 2011) Copeland, Charles Jonathan; Gower, Karla; University of Alabama TuscaloosaHealth and beauty product advertising from American women's magazines during World War II exhibits a unique combination of sex appeals and wartime messages. Ad campaigns from Ladies Home Journal and Collier's, from the years 1941-1946, were selected and analyzed for their use of sex appeals in conjunction with war-related messages. Ads from these campaigns from 1941 and 1946 were included to compare and contrast the use of these messages. Several trends emerge. Examination of these campaigns shows a distinct trend to idealize enlisted men as romantic partners. Also, the campaigns studied contain messages to address home front issues, such as conservation of materials and labor shortages. After the war's conclusion in 1946, the men depicted in advertising become increasingly civilian as the ads begin to refrain from including war-related messages and themes. At this point in time, these campaigns for health and beauty products in these women's magazines continue to run, but are mostly scrubbed of their wartime context. ItemNational television news and newspapers as media salience, Twitter as public salience: an agenda-setting effects analysis(University of Alabama Libraries, 2011) Vargo, Christopher Joseph; Pasadeos, Yorgo; Cheong, Yunjae; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThe new social medium Twitter provides a unique opportunity for agenda setting scholars as a new source of public opinion. This thesis argued that this new measurement could be used as an indirect measurement of public salience. Twitter stores information posted by users of its service in a searchable and quantifiable mode. Freeing information that was private on other social networking sites, such as Facebook, issues can be tracked on Twitter much like that of a news archive, such as Google News or The Vanderbilt Television News Archive. Three popular public issues were tracked for a total of 92 days. The issues chosen were Immigration, BP Oil and the Mortgage and Housing Crisis. First and second-level agenda-setting variables were coded for national television newscasts and newspapers. These variables were interpreted as measurements of media salience and assigned as independent variables. In addition, Tweets were tracked and labeled as public salience. They were inversely named as dependent variables. Correlations were assessed, and a time series analysis was conducted to determine whether the independent variables were sufficient predictors of the dependent variables. Alternative explanations and conjecture not withstanding, this thesis found a mild relationship between media salience and public salience as it defined it. For the issues of BP Oil and the Mortgage and Housing Crisis, two independent variables were predictors of the dependent variables. For the issue of Immigration, only one independent variable was a predictor. The lack of predictors for the Immigration issue was attributed to an error between dependent and independent variables. Media salience was determined to consist of national news stories while public salience was determined to contain global stories. For all cases, the agenda-setting effect occurred on the same day. Ultimately, this thesis was an extension of agenda setting into a new digital medium. The mild support found echoes the agenda-setting research of the past that states traditional mass media outlets affect and set the agenda of the publics that listen to them. ItemProduct appearances in NBC's the Office compared to multiple character variables(University of Alabama Libraries, 2011) Johnson, Amanda Suzanne; Pasadeos, Yorgo; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThis study examined the relationship between product appearances and character variables through content analysis. The Elaboration Likelihood Model was used as a foundation for this study. The ELM indicates that character credibility, liking and consensus are the three primary heuristics for reaching a subject through the peripheral route and product appearances were considered peripheral forms of advertising by nature. Product variables were compared to multiple character variables. Character variables included gender, role (major or minor), credibility, likeability, and consensus. Character credibility and likeability were determined by a survey of bloggers who assigned the characters a static credibility/likeability score. The data collected by this content analysis indicated that characters with high likeability scores were linked to more product appearances than characters with low likeability scores and characters that were typical consumers were also linked to more products than non-typical consumers. However, there was no relationship found between character credibility and the quantity or cost of product appearances. ItemMultimedia rights holders and athletic sponsorship: a system theory case study of the University of Alabama(University of Alabama Libraries, 2012) Garrison, Elizabeth Brandt; Kinney, Lance T.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThis research offers a case study of sports multimedia contracts as awarded by the University of Alabama and executed by Crimson Tide Sports Marketing, a Learfield/IMG sports management subsidiary. This case study used system theory to investigate how the UA/CTSM sports contract is executed. System theory reviews complex organizations as composed of smaller units with specific responsibilities. System theory research involves observing and describing the operating units, how they interact and how each unit contributes to the organization's goals. Six system components were identified in the UA/CTSM system. However, the most frequent interactions were reported between the control, network distribution, and advertising units. These components work together to create revenue through their participation in the system. ItemMotivations to tweet: a uses and gratifications perspective of Twitter use during a natural disaster(University of Alabama Libraries, 2012) Maxwell, Elizabeth Marie; Horsley, J. Suzanne; University of Alabama TuscaloosaOn April 27, 2011, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, was struck by an EF-4 tornado. This research investigates how students at The University of Alabama used Twitter during the warning, impact and recovery stages of the disaster. The warning stage refers to the time before the disaster. The impact stage refers to the time during the disaster, and the recovery stage refers to the time after the disaster. Specifically, this research studies four motivations to use Twitter-- social, entertainment, status seeking, and information. Each category was studied to understand when people who were motivated by the need to socialize, to entertain, to gain status or to gather information were actively tweeting in connection with the tornado. By using a mixed design ANOVA, the researcher found that students were tweeting significantly more during the recovery stage, which included Twitter use, during the weeks after the tornado. The researcher was interested in knowing which motivation produced the most Twitter use. The social, entertainment, and information motivations produced roughly the same amount of Twitter use. The status motivation did not produce as much Twitter use during the natural disaster. The results suggest that those motivated by social, entertainment or information needs tweet more during the impact and recovery stage. The most Twitter use occurs in the weeks after the disaster during the recovery stage. ItemVisual framing and social networking: a content analysis of the 2012 Barack Obama and Mitt Romney Facebook pages(University of Alabama Libraries, 2013) Miller, John Burton; Cooper, Caryl; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThe purpose of this study is to discover how Barack Obama and Mitt Romney were framed visually on Facebook during the 2012 presidential election. Frame theory has been studied in various forms of media. However, this study is the first, to the researcher's knowledge, to use frame theory to analyze Facebook. A content analysis of each candidate's Facebook Timeline Photos album was conducted. The image attributes used for analysis were established in previous research. These attributes were divided into two main categories, the ideal candidate and populist campaigner. The main categories were divided into four subcategories, statesman, compassionate, mass appeal, and ordinariness. There were significant differences between candidates in the subcategories. It appeared to be a main campaign strategy to frame Mitt Romney as a statesman. Many Romney photos were filled with symbols of patriotism and campaign paraphernalia. The Barack Obama campaign appeared to frame Obama as a compassionate candidate. Obama had significantly more photos linked to compassion. While there was no difference in the ordinariness subcategory, there was a difference in the mass appeal subcategory. The Mitt Romney campaign uploaded significantly more photos of Romney in front of large audiences. Obama's photos appeared to be more intimate. Further research should be conducted by expanding the research methods of this study to other political offices and other social networks. ItemSpokes-character usage as a marketing tool on Twitter(University of Alabama Libraries, 2013) Ireland, Jennifer Marie; Kinney, Lance T.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThis research investigates how marketers use spokes-characters on Twitter to communicate with consumers subscribing to the character's Twitter feed. This research content analyzes Twitter posts for 20 spokes-characters representing a variety of brands and different product categories. A random sample of 2,691 tweets were selected to be analyzed for content, links, and timing. The results proved several relationships between different spokes-character demographics and their tweeting habits. When compared to male characters, female characters are significantly more likely to tweet original content, while males are significantly more likely than females to respond to queries. The most frequently tweeted type of content for all characters is pass along content, with news being the least frequently observed content category. Significant content differences are observed between spokes-characters based upon the spokes-character's gender, appearance and product type represented. When all characters are considered, most spokes-characters tweet during weekday mornings. Similar patterns are observed for monthly tweet activity: tweet frequency peaks in the summer, and declines during the October, November and December. ItemHyper-local public health policy change: a case study of the SmokeFree Birmingham campaign(University of Alabama Libraries, 2014) Hansen, Lewis Michael; Horsley, J. Suzanne; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThis paper is a qualitative study of the role of public relations in the success of a federally funded anti-smoking public health campaign in Jefferson County, Alabama, from 2010-12. The goal of the campaign was to advance smoke-free policies (i.e., laws forbidding smoking in public places such as restaurants, bars, workplaces, public buildings and areas, etc.) in the various municipalities across Jefferson County. Each municipal campaign was implemented independently. The paper looks specifically at the SmokeFree Birmingham campaign, which resulted in the successful passage and implementation of a smoke-free ordinance after two public hearings on the proposed law. The campaign's public relations relied heavily on opinion leadership, the core of Katz and Lazarsfeld's (1955) two-step flow of communication theory, to influence public opinion in support of the stated policy goals. According to Mutz (2011), "one of the very earliest theories about interactions between mass and interpersonal communication-- the two-step flow-- is now more relevant than ever before" (p. 1019). This paper revisits the two-step flow theory in the age of social media as a communications model for hyper-local public policy campaigns. ItemGuanxi and legitimacy: understanding corporate social responsibility and public relations in China and the U.S.(University of Alabama Libraries, 2014) Morrow, Sarah Ashton; Lamme, Margot Opdycke; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThis study provides a cross-cultural comparison of public relations practitioners as the facilitators of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives in China and in the U.S. A qualitative investigation was conducted employing grounded theory and in-depth interviews with 11 participants, incorporating representatives from top U.S. and China public relations firms, including five top ten international public relations firms. The research found that guanxi (business relationships) is a major cultural influence on the institutionalization of CSR in China, whereas legitimacy, and a need to develop more sophisticated business strategy and protect brand image, has driven CSR development at an increased rate in the West. The results build on a theoretical understanding of CSR as having an economic, legal, ethical, and/or discretionary rationale (Carroll, 1979), and call for a new theoretical understanding that focuses more on the benefit of CSR to society and its integration with business strategy. The study validates the role of public relations practitioners as the facilitators of CSR. Finally, the findings indicate that CSR is not paradigmatic by region so much as by business experience. That is, an overarching cross-cultural CSR paradigm emerged in this study that correlated effective CSR programs with levels of experience in running a business in the free-enterprise system. This study revealed a pattern of global activation that starts by uniting an organization around a similar issue or interest, activating stakeholders at the local level and adjusting for community-specific and culturally specific need, and laddering local effects back up to a greater global awareness and impact (Figure 1.1). ItemFashion blogging and consumers: examining the uses and gratifications of readers of fashion blogs(University of Alabama Libraries, 2015) Fink, Ariel Devora; Lewis, Regina Louise; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThis research focused on the motivations consumers have for accessing fashion blogs. This study is important due to the limited scope of research that exists regarding consumer motivations, particularly for accessing specific types of blogs. Most existing research focuses more on the relationship between blogs and advertisers. Using a survey with measures adapted from previous research on social media motivations, the researcher was able to discover that the main reasons for accessing fashion blogs matched the main reasons for accessing blogs in general. The most important motivations were social surveillance and entertainment. Additionally, this research indicated that the Millennial generation is more invested in blogs than most other demographics. These findings can help bloggers and advertisers better tailor their content to fit this demographic and their needs, something marketers are currently striving to achieve in a time when Millennials influence spending. Further research should focus on qualitative methods that can allow the researcher to delve deeper into consumer needs. ItemExpanding the beauty spectrum: a case study of Lupita Nyong’o as the brand ambassador for Lancôme cosmetics(University of Alabama Libraries, 2016) Olugbode, Monsurat Olubukola; Lamme, Margot Opdycke; University of Alabama TuscaloosaIn 2014, Lupita Nyong’o became the first black spokeswoman for Lancôme Paris cosmetics, the first in the company’s 80-year history. Previously, the advertising industry took issue with using models outside of the European standard of beauty for various reasons including perceptions of consumer relatability and response, but Nyong’o’s contract is a direct challenge to this notion. The intent of this study to explore news coverage of the first year (April 2014 – April 2015) of Nyong’o’s contract with Lancôme to determine why Nyong’o was chosen as the first black ambassador, how the decision was received, and what the implications are for the beauty standards, especially the black beauty standard. ItemThe need for cognition and the adoption of new technology: a study of how the elaboration likelihood impacts diffusion of innovation(University of Alabama Libraries, 2016) Lewis, Jeffrey Douglas; Gower, Karla; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThe Elaboration Likelihood Model and Diffusion of Innovation are theories that describe decision-making processes. Diffusion of innovation explains the time it takes for individuals to learn about an innovation, try the innovation, and make the decision to adopt or reject it. The ELM suggests individuals use a dual process of thinking. The route to persuasion changes depending on how the person thinks. Each route targets different levels of thinking. This thesis investigates the relationship between the ELM and diffusion of innovation. ItemEffects of organization sustainability communication: the influence of interactivity, message appeal, and type of medium(University of Alabama Libraries, 2016) Oh, Jeyoung; Ki, Eyun-Jung; University of Alabama TuscaloosaTo understand how interactivity, message appeal, and type of medium affect public perceptions and reactions to an organization in organization sustainability communication, this study conducted a 2 (interactivity: high vs. low) x 2 (message appeal: gain-focused vs. loss-focused) x 2 (medium type: Facebook vs. organizational blog) experimental survey (N = 394). Results show that the level of interactivity and type of message appeal appear to significantly influence the social presence of the message and the public’s positive word-of-mouth intention. The public’s intention to generate positive word-of-mouth was highest when the communication had high interactivity with a gain-focused message conveyed on the organization’s Facebook page. ItemShattering the concrete ceiling: exploring the moderating effects of mass media messages as it relates to the perceived self-efficacy of African-American women(University of Alabama Libraries, 2016) Galloway, Brittany Joyce; Brown, Kenon A.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaPast research has shown that there are few positive ethnically diverse role models in American society (Hackett & Betz, 1981). African-American women have identified the lack of racially identical role models as a significant barrier to attaining leadership positions within Corporate America. A cross-sectional survey was administered to explore how mass media images depicting counter-stereotypical images of African-American role models affect the self-efficacy beliefs of African-American women (195 respondents, 51%). The researcher also examined the participant’s ability to cope with stress and their reported level of career aspirations as predictors of their level of identification with the potential role model. The results indicated that African-American women have lower levels of both self-efficacy and career aspirations than women of other races (187 respondents, 49%). The results also indicated that the participant’s ability to cope with stress and level of career aspirations predicated their level of identification. Furthermore, the study found that a potential role models race significantly influenced the participants level of identification. This research will foster social change by identifying an effective approach to combating historical stereotypes that lower the self-efficacy of African-American women. Increasing the self-efficacy of African-American women could advance opportunities for minority women’s leadership and reduce the leadership gap in Corporate America. ItemDove "campaign for real beauty"(University of Alabama Libraries, 2016) Goins, Kaitlin Elyse; Lamme, Margot Opdycke; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThe Dove Campaign for Real Beauty launched in the United States in 2004, challenging the norms of American beauty by featuring everyday women who were not skinny and flawless and who represented a range of ages, ethnicities, and races. Rooted in research and with the commitment to listen to women, Dove rolled out new sections of the campaign, each with a new target audience in mind, but all with the same message: all women are beautiful. However in the first ten years, the Campaign for Real Beauty did not change beauty standards overnight. What initially seemed to be a model CSR campaign proved to be a CSR campaign with many blemishes that has seemed to forget or departed from its original message about women’s “real” beauty. Nevertheless, the Dove Campaign for Real Beauty points to the importance of finding and embracing new technologies and exemplifies a model for an affective economy in the context of CSR. ItemExperimental comparison of two post-crisis communication strategies: discourse of renewal theory and bolstering(University of Alabama Libraries, 2017) Shi, Zhe; Kinney, Lance T.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaPublic relations theorists investigating organizational crisis communication have suggested discourse of renewal theory (DRT) as an alternative to more standard apologia tactics. DRT advises organizations in crisis to give the chief executive officer a prominent communication role (rather than other organization personnel or outside consultants). DRT also advises forward-looking communication tactics highlighting potential for organizational growth, improved operations and necessary change. The experiment reported here is the first-known experimental investigation of DRT-based crisis responses. A non-random sample of 114 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of four crisis response treatments: CEO-attributed DRT responses, CEO–attributed organizational bolstering responses, non-CEO attributed DRT responses and non-CEO organizational bolstering responses. Contrary to DRT-derived hypotheses, CEO-attributed responses did not generate significantly higher mean attitude toward the organization, message credibility or organizational credibility when compared to non-CEO attributed responses. Similarly, DRT responses did not outperform more standard bolstering apologia tactics. ItemTwitter as a platform for engaging political dialogue: a dialogic theory content analysis of Donald Trump's general election campaign Twitter feed(University of Alabama Libraries, 2017) Foster, Callie Smith; Kinney, Lance T.; University of Alabama TuscaloosaThe Internet and social media are tools that possess the ability to make communicating with celebrities, politicians and all types of important figures an actual possibility. This content analysis explores the use of then- presidential candidate Donald Trump’s use of Twitter to communicate with his followers. A random sample of tweets was selected following the time period after the Republican National Convention to a week after the general election. The study relies on Kent and Taylor’s (2001) principle strategies of how to create effective relationship building through dialogue. There is very little research available concerning political candidates and dialogic theory on social media. However, what is found in this study remains consistent with that of similar studies on dialogic theory and celebrities and organizations’ use of social media. Social media as a tool for building effective relationships through the use of dialogic principles is severely under-utilized. Despite the lack of dialogic principles, Trump’s followers remained highly engaged into his tweeting habits, especially with tweets that attacked an individual or the media. The findings prove that these types of tweets were published most often thus lending credence to assert that the aggressive rhetoric was popular amongst his followers.